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Published by 

NEW YORK 1938 




FOREWORD ..................... 7 

A GALLERY OF JEWS ............... 17 




PALESTINE Is ZION ......... 40 





ONE COMMON PATH TO GOD ............. 81 



. S CHAIRMAN of the Committee on "How 
to Combat Anti-Semitism in America" formed Toy 
OPINION, a Journal of Jewish Life and Letters, 
I have noted the necessity of furthering the cause 
of tolerance and good-will among the widest pos- 
sible audience. It is with this in mind that the Com- 
mittee has determined to publish a volume of essays 
"Through Gentile Eyes" by Dr. John Haynes 

For more than a generation there has been no 
more valiant champion on behalf of racial under- 
standing and religious fellowship than Dr. Holmes. 
His services in this cause are pre-eminent and it is 
fitting that this volume should appear at a time 
when it is necessary to stem the tide of prejudice, 
and to advance the American tradition of brother- 
hood among all creeds and races in our country. 



speaking, there is no such thing as "Gentile 
eyes". There are only human eyes which are charged 
with the task of looking with understanding and sym- 
pathy into other human eyes. To recognize that there 
are Gentile eyes, or Jewish eyes, or any other kind of 
eyes, is to recognize that there are divisions between 
men and therewith to dignify and perpetuate these di- 
visions. I would myself have nothing to do with them. 
I would wipe them out altogether, so that there might be 
neither "Jew nor Gentile," as there should be neither 
"bond nor free." If I look "through Gentile eyes," it is 
not because I would even momentarily live or think as a 
Gentile in my relations with my Jewish brethren, but 
only because there are viewpoints, forced upon us by 
the accidents of history, which may perhaps 'be utilized 
to mutual advantage. 

Speaking from such a viewpoint and to such an end, 
I am first of all tempted to wonder if the Jews realize 
the enormous advantage of their position in relation to 
the Gentiles as compared with the position of the Gen- 
tiles in relation to the Jews. What I have in mind is the 
fact that they have been for centuries a race persecuted 
by the Gentiles, and thus must always be seen by the 
Gentiles as those who have been and still are the victims 
of their cruelty, lust and hate. 

Always must the Jew stand as a perpetual reminder 


to the Gentile of the latter's frailties and sins, of his 
failure through generations to fulfill the precepts of his 
religion of brotherhood and peace, of his betrayal of that 
gospel of love which was brought to the world by the 
Nazarene who was himself a Jew. Is not the Gentile's 
now traditional abhorrence of the Jew to be explained 
to a large extent as in essence his abhorrence of himself 
in his treatment of the Jew? For is it not a familiar fault 
of human nature to wreak vengeance most terribly not 
upon the one who has misused us but upon the one whom 
we have ourselves misused in a desperate endeavor to 
transfer to another the burden of our offending? How- 
ever this may be, the Jew is a living embodiment of all 
that is most grievous in Christian history. For a Gentile 
to come into the presence of a Jew is to feel himself em- 
barrassed, stricken with shame, convicted of sin. In the 
face of the heritage of horror which the centuries bestow 
upon the Gentile from out the years of oppressive rela- 
tions with the Jew, I marvel that any Gentile can ever 
find anything in any Jew to blame. What is the worst in 
the Jew as compared with what is the worst in the Gen- 
tile? As in Robert Browning's famous poem, "Instans 
Tyrannus," it is the master and not the slave, the hater 
and not the hated, the persecutor and not the persecuted, 
who before God must be "afraid" ! 

- But there is another point of view from which the po- 
sition of the Jew must be seen to have immense advan- 
tage over that of the Gentile in their relations with one 

another. I refer to the fact that the Jew, by virtue of the 
sufferings, subjections and suppressions which have ever 
been his lot, his opportunity to develop those rare virtues 
of patience, tolerance, forgiveness, and the far vision of 
man's ultimate deliverance from all woe, which mark the 
flowering of the perfect soul. I am persuaded that the 
Jews would never have produced their prophets, never 
have found the basic laws of righteousness, never have 
discovered God and his promised kingdom on the earth, 
had they been permanently a people of martial power 
and political dominion. The Egyptians to the west and 
the Babylonians to the east were also Semites and may 
well have shared those spiritual qualities which made 
the Jew the unique exponent of religion. But these peo- 
ples, triumphant over their foes, wielding successfully 
the weapons of force and violence, destroyed not only 
their enemies but their own higher and nobler selves. It 
was just because the Jews were politically weak, a con- 
quered rather than a conquering people, that they dis- 
covered those inner qualities of being which might serve 
as compensation, so to speak, for their outward losses 
and defeats. It was no accident that it was only when 
the glory of the kingdoms of David and Solomon began 
to grow dim and their power to wane, that kings were 
succeeded by prophets, the men of the sword by the men 
of the spirit, as the chief leaders of Israel. 

It is true, of course, that the miseries of Israel through 
the centuries before as well as after the Christian era 

have not always led to the development of these nobler 
qualities of soul. On the contrary, the iniquities of Jew- 
ish life, the sheer struggle of the Jew to survive at any 
cost the horrors of the ghetto, have served to cultivate 
certain qualities which are as unlovely as they may be 
effective. If the Jew is aggressive, cunning, unscrupu- 
lous, materialistic, worldly, it is largely because his 
Gentile persecutors have made him so. These familiar 
features of Jewish life are the obverse reflections, so to 
speak, of Israel's experience at the hands of a hostile 
world. But they are evidence also in the higher sense, of 
the failure of the Jew as well as the fault of the Gentile. 
Had the Jew always been at his best, he would have 
transmuted the raw material of his distress into the pure 
gold of compassion and forgiveness. His very oppres- 
sion would have been his opportunity, his defeat in body 
his triumph in spirit. It is this eternal possibility of 
using suffering as a medium of salvation that proves the 
divine quality of man's life and the basically moral 
character of the universe. 

As a Gentile I would free the Jew of all oppression for 
his own sake that he might be forever delivered from 
the pains and penalties, the sufferings and subjections, 
which have been for centuries his awful fate. As a Gen- 
tile I would free the Jew for my sake that my people 
might be delivered from the shame and hate of their mis- 
deeds against their brethren. Horrible beyond words 
have been the physical agonies of the Jew ; horrible bc- 


yond words have been the spiritual atrocities of the Gen- 
tiles. In God's good gaze, is not the choice certain be- 
tween these two unhappy lots? From every higher and 
therefore truer point of view the Jews have final ad- 
vantage over the Gentiles. If, therefore, I were a Jew, 
I would seek as little to escape my destiny as to hide my 
race. I would strive to look not down with shame but up 
with pride upon my fate and by my mastery of my own 
spirit thus prove my primacy over all who would de- 
grade or drag me down. 


The Genius of the Jew 

JLo THE genuine anti-Semite, bitterly hostile to the 
Jews, the present situation must indeed be maddening. 
The primacy of these Jews in worthy fields of human 
achievement, their almost uncanny ability to climb to 
the highest position of attainment and honor, their pos- 
session of degrees of leadership out of all proportion to 
their actual numbers among mankind, rank among the 
most impressive facts of contemporary life. What won- 
der that ignorant, credulous, and prejudiced people talk 
about conspiracy and magic, and appeal to force to 
overcome and destroy what cannot otherwise be mas- 
tered! Look at a few conspicuous instances of what Jews 
are doing in our age : 

The greatest scientist in the world today, and one of 
the eight or ten greatest scientists of all time, is Albert 
Einstein, a Jew. When one has named Democritus, Aris- 
totle, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, and Pasteur, one has 
come near to naming all the men in history who are 
worthy to rank with this exile of Hitler's Germany. 
Among living men in the scientific field, there is not one 
who is not glad to sit at the feet of this Jewish master 
of them all. Einstein cannot be refuted in argument, 
disproved by facts and figures, discredited by intellectual 
indictment. He can only be brow-beaten, insulted, and 
silenced by authority of savage government. So he seeks 


refuge and finds honor in lands more hospitable than 
his own. 

The greatest philosopher in the world today, as dis- 
tinguished a philosopher in the twentieth century as 
Baruch Spinoza in the sixteenth, is Henri Bergson, a 
Jew. This French thinker precipitated one of the sen- 
sations of philosophical history, and produced one of 
the immortal books of modern times, in the publication 
shortly before the War of his "Creative Evolution." This 
work immediately placed its author in the great succes- 
sion of original thinkers which has run unbroken since 
the days of the ancient Greeks. The stupendous struggle 
of arms between France and Germany interrupted the 
mounting progress of Bergson' s thought. His voice was 
lost in the clash of conflict, as his presence was swal- 
lowed up in the darkness of despair. For years after the 
peace, he remained silent, and became as it were a figure 
of history. But this pajst year has seen the publication 
of a final masterpiece (not yet translated into English) 
which ranks this Jew as the supreme philosophic leader 
of the period after, as of the period before, the World 

The greatest artist in the world today, a genius of 
almost paralyzing power and originality, is Jacob Ep- 
stein, a Jew. The works of this sculptor, the true suc- 
cessor of Rodin, invariably stir controversy. Sometimes 
this is because of a fundamental failure of adjustment 
between Epstein's mind and its appointed subject, as in 


the case of the memorial to W. H. Hudson, in Hyde 
Park, London, from which no less a man than John 
Galsworthy said that he recoiled. "The task was im- 
possible, indeed, for any artist, however original." More 
often this controversy sprang from an understanding 
by the artist so sure, an insight so profound, a revela- 
tion so brilliant, as to shock the observer into new and 
unwelcome sensations of reality. Perhaps none other 
than a Jew could achieve what Epstein has achieved 
with his moulded stone. He does with his chisel what 
Isaiah and Jeremiah did with words. Certainly no one 
can hope to comprehend the significance of this sculp- 
tor's images who does not feel in them that spirit of 
moral judgment and prophecy which is the Jew's pe- 
culiar contribution to humanity. Only in the pages of 
the Old Testament can one match the mingled austerity 
and rapture which dwell in Epstein's works. In this 
man we see against the spectacle of Israel startling and 
stunning mankind into terror of the awfulness of God. 
The greatest jurist in the world today who is he 
but Louis D. Brandeis, Justice of our United States Su- 
preme Court? It is amusing to recall at this late date the 
objections made to President Wilson's nomination of this 
Jew to the supreme bench the charge offered by such 
men as William Howard Taft, Elihu Root, Joseph H. 
Choate, Simon E. Baldwin, A. Lawrence Lowell, that 
he "lacked the judicial temperament." What was really 
meant was that Mr. Brandeis had a passion for hu- 


manity, an understanding of the relation of law to 
life, a sense of justice as inherent not in hairsplittings 
of word and phrase but in actual agonies of flesh and 
blood, which were all too strange to the judicial process 
as practised in this country. More truly even than his 
great colleague, Oliver Wendell Holmes, who had limi- 
tations not known to Brandeis, this Jewish judge has 
vitalized the law in the service of man's social needs and 
expectations. More truly than any other living man he 
has transformed this law from a barrier never to be 
crossed into an instrument always to be used. Is it any 
accident that the august tradition of the English com- 
mon law as illuminated and interpreted by the ethical 
genius of a Jewish mind, goes far toward marking the 
direction for the safe and sure progress of our western 
world in years to come? 

The greatest novelists of the present era are many 
of them Jews. Name Wells, Holland, Nexo, Hamsun, 
Undset, Upton Sinclair, and straightway one must fol- 
low with Wassermann, Feuchtwanger, Arnold Zweig, 
and perhaps Ludwig Lewisohn. To these may well be 
added the great biographers, Emil Ludwig, Henri Bar- 
busse, and Stefan Zweig. The appearance of the Jew in 
the field of imaginative and interpretative literature has 
come late in our time. Israel Zangwill was almost a 
unique phenomenon a generation ago. But the genius 
was there in the Hebrew soul, as witness the immortal 
classics, "Ruth", "Esther", "Daniel", "Tobit", "Job", 


"Song of Songs", the "Maccabees", and a myriad hidden 
treasures in the Talmud. Long buried beneath the op- 
pression of the centuries, the fire now leaps forth like 
flames from the central core of earth. 

What is true in these fields of human endeavor is true 
also in other kindred fields in music, journalism, the 
drama, finance, commerce, statesmanship, philanthropy. 
The Jew, released at last from the base imprisonment 
of Christian history, is suddenly challenging primacy in 
all achievement which springs from a union of intellect 
and spirit. The secret of Israel's strange genius has 
never been revealed. It is in all probability as undis- 
coverable as the unique genius of the ancient Hindus 
and of the classic Greeks. One becomes mystical rather 
than scientific in probing the origin and nature of this 
native deposit of the soul. That this genius has been 
intensified by the long and cruel repression visited upon 
it, is obvious. And now its emergence, under the freer 
conditions of our time, is as startling an experience as 
that of Keats' "watcher of the skies" who saw 
a new planet swim into his ken. 

To the humane observer this emergence constitutes an 
incalculable enrichment of the race, which renews his 
confidence in man and his faith in God. Only to the ig- 
norant and prejudiced, and especially to those smitten 
by some consciousness of inferiority, is it an occasion 
of humiliation and fear. But this means jealousy, which 
joins with hate to add a new terror to anti-Semitism. 


A Gallery of Jews 


HAVE just been looking at a remarkable book "Por- 
traits of Jews by Gilbert Stuart and Other Early Amer- 
ican Artists," by Hannah R. London, with an apprecia- 
tion by Dr. A. S. W. Rosenbach, published in New York 
by William Edwin Rudge. A beautifully printed text of 
seventy-nine large pages is followed by fifty-eight full- 
page plates. The whole is indexed, contains preface and 
bibliography, and is handsomely bound. The edition is 
limited to one thousand copies, of which the one in my 
hands is No. 739. 

The first thing that impresses, and indeed surprises, 
a Gentile reader of this volume is the testimony it bears 
of the prominence of Jews in colonial America, and of 
their conspicuous place in the social and cultural life 
of the times. There could not have been many Jewish 
families in those days before and immediately after the 
Revolution, and these few were thinly scattered along 
the Atlantic seaboard, not only in Newport and New 
York, but also in Norfolk, Savannah, Charleston, and 
New Orleans. But wherever they were, they were eminent 
in commerce and learning, and obviously cultivated the 
arts. They commissioned the best portrait painters of 
their age. Thus, in the pictures reproduced in this book 
may be seen some of the finest work of John Wollaston, 
Samuel King, William Henry Brown, Charles Peale 
Polk, James Sharpless, Benjamin Trott, and others 


equally well known. Among the portraits listed in the 
text, some reproduced in the plates, are no less than 
twelve canvasses by Gilbert Stuart and twenty-six by 
Thomas Sully. Miniatures, silhouettes and drawings are 
also included. 

It is obvious that this collection, as Mr. Rosenbach 
points out in his introduction, constitutes not only "a 
considerable addition" to our knowledge of early Amer- 
ican art, but also "a most valuable contribution to the 
history of the Jews in the United States." Here is a 
gallery of Jewish leaders who founded synagogues and 
charitable societies, fostered trade, fought in the wars, 
explored the pioneer West, and took their full share in 
the public service of their communities. Jacob Franks 
contributed to build the steeple of Trinity Church, 
New York ; his daughter, Phila, married General Oliver 
De Lancey, whose home, now known as Fraunces Tav- 
ern, still stands at Broad and Pearl Streets ; a grand- 
daughter, Rebecca Franks, "was a reigning belle dur- 
ing the British occupation of Philadelphia no one 
seems to have disputed her title to be considered the wit 
of her day among womankind." Moses Seixas was found- 
er of the Bank of Rhode Island; his brother, Gershom, a 
rabbi, served as trustee of Columbia College from 1787 
to 1815, and, an ardent patriot, participated with thir- 
teen other clergymen in the inauguration of President 
Washington in 1789. Rabbi Karigal, of Newport, was 
the close friend of Ezra Stiles, President of Yale Col- 


lege, who frequently attended his synagogue to hear him 
preach. Israel Jacobs was a member of the Pennsylvania 
Assembly in 1771, and of the United States Congress 
in 1791-1793. Uriah P. Levy, at the time of his death 
in 1862 the highest ranking officer in the United States 
Navy, presented to the United States Government the 
famous bronze statue of Thomas Jefferson in the Cap- 
itol at Washington, and achieved the establishment of 
Jefferson's home, Monticello, as a national shrine. Israel 
Israel, of Philadelphia, was Grand Master of the Ma- 
sonic Order in Pennsylvania in 1802 and 1804. These are 
but a few items culled from these precious pages, elo- 
quent of personal eminence, high public spirit, and noble 
attainment in this country's life. 

But the plates soon win attention from the text, and 
hold it fast. These portraits, here so faithfully repro- 
duced, present a remarkable aggregation of men and 
women. They were "a picked racial group," we are told ; 
"usually, perhaps always, of the Spanish and Portu- 
guese strains." Even so, the uniform standard of phy- 
sical, intellectual and spiritual quality is extraordinary. 
The women share the rich, dark, exotic beauty so long 
characteristic of the females of the tribes of Israel. 
Fanny Levy (p. 183) shows an ineffable radiance and 
grace; Mrs. Solomon Moses (p. 169) blooms in the full 
flower of early and fragrant womanhood ; Mrs. Barnard 
Gratz (p. 123) is more mature, more statuesque; Rebec- 
ca Gratz (p. 177) is a gorgeous creature; Mrs. Joseph 


Andrews (p. 137) and Mrs. Samson Levy, Sr. (p. 127) 
are true "mothers in Israel.' 5 But there is more than 
beauty here; there is high character and keen intelli- 
gence as well. What wives and mothers these women must 
have been, and what brilliant social companions ! Their 
homes, we know, had dignity, and their salons wit and 
wisdom and kind feeling. Women of this type are the 
strength of any people. 

The men, who in this collection of portraits outnum- 
ber the women three to one, are prevailingly of the 
burgher type. The scholar, the artist, the rabbi, even 
the soldier are here, but the majority are merchants, 
bankers, and public leaders. It is curious to note a com- 
plete absence of the classic synagogue or ghetto type of 
Jew, just as it is equally curious to note on many of the 
figures in these plates the powdered wigs and colonial 
coats which almost completely hid the lineaments of 
Israel. A striking portrait is that of Commodore Uriah 
P. Levy (p, 107), the great Jefferson enthusiast, clad 
in his naval uniform, with epaulettes, sword, gloves, and 
official scroll. This is matched by the Major Mordecai 
Myers portrait (p. 131), and by the magnificent Thomas 
Sully sketch of Major Alfred Mordecai (p. 185). But 
the majority of these men were sturdy private citizens, 
householders, merchants, civic dignitaries and public 
leaders. Some are young, most of them middle-age or 
older, all of them strong men of a native integrity and 
genius. We know these men were faithful to their wives, 


honest in their business dealings, rigorous in their ob- 
servance of domestic and religious rites. For all their 
strength, there is no hardness in them ; for all their 
dignity, no aloofness or snobbishness. In all their rela- 
tions they must have been warm, sympathetic, whole- 
some, and innately true. 

A few of the portraits outshine all the others the 
Gilbert Stuart frontispiece, for example, a picture of 
Abraham Touro. This must be extraordinary as a work 
of art but what a subject the painter had! Such in- 
telligence, benevolence, and inner serenity of spirit ! This 
man had won his place, and secured in reward his peace. 
Samson Levy, Jr. (p. 189) haunts the mind with the 
searching power of his eyes and the commanding poise 
of his splendid head. This impression is confirmed by 
the other Samson Levy picture on page 139. Only one 
of all these men seems weak, one other dubious in charac- 
ter. I leave such of our readers as may see this volume 
to identify my suspicions. But as a group, they are 
matchless men. What stock for the breeding of a nation ! 

One wonders, as one turns the pages of this book, why 
material of this kind is not more often used in the pre- 
sentation of the word and work of Israel. As I think of 
the Jewish literature I have read, I seem to recall a color 
and atmosphere remote from familiar American ex- 
perience. As I think of the pictures of Jews which I 
have seen in the studies of rabbis and in the homes of my 
Jewish friends, I seem to see the bent heads and bearded 


faces of ancient scholars poring over texts of Talmudic 
lore. These heads and faces have an almost overwhelm- 
ing dignity of suffering and exaltation, as Jewish litera- 
ture has an irresistible appeal of strange yet noble 
tragedy. But this is not all of Israel, nor even that part 
which may most quickly reach the Gentile heart. The 
Jew has survived through the ages by virtue of the 
mystic power of that inner tradition of fidelity which is 
written in every line of face and feature. But he has also, 
while preserving his inner integrity, taken his place in 
this present-day world among his fellows. He has escaped 
from the ghetto, and become one with contemporary 
mankind. He is now a modern as well as an ancient peo- 
ple always a Jew, but also an American! 

These pictures, so zealously hunted out by Hannah 
M. London, are nearly all of them hidden away in priv- 
ate homes. Only one, so far as I can make out, is in a 
public place that of Commodore Levy, appropriately 
hung in Thomas Jefferson's home at Monticello. This 
limited edition has revealed them, for the first time, per- 
haps, to a few students of art and a few other students 
of Israel's history. But this is not enough ! Why should 
not some of them at least be rescued, and made the per- 
manent possession of the American people? One such 
portrait as Gilbert Stuart's Abraham Touro, if made 
as familiar as Benjamin Franklin and John Adams and 
Andrew Jackson, would end anti-Semitism in America 


A World Jewish Congress 


HAVE no doubt that it is altogether "good and pleas- 
ant" for a Gentile to keep out of the current controversy 
in American Jewry over the proposed World Jewish 
Congress. To interfere, even to advise or comment, may 
bring upon the intruder, however well-intentioned, all 
the violent opprobrium that falls upon the man who 
enters into a family quarrel. A judge, who undertook to 
chastise a wife-beater the other day, was straightway 
set upon by the irate wife who had suffered so sorely at 
her husband's hands. Perhaps this may be my fate if I 
use the privileges of this column even to suggest how 
the discussion of the World Jewish Congress looks 
"through Gentile eyes." But the itch is upon me to say 
a word or at least to submit a bit of testimony which 
may have some bearing upon the present case! 

What strikes the Gentile of liberal Christian training 
and experience is a high sense of amazement that any 
Jew should object to a World Jewish Congress, especial- 
ly under such conditions of anti-Semitic agitation as 
prevail nearly everywhere today. Fantastic, to this Gen- 
tile at least, seems the idea, strenuously and of course 
sincerely put forth by spokesmen of the American Jew- 
ish Committee, that a World Jewish Congress at this 
time would aggravate hostility against the Jews as 
aliens and outlanders, and thus make more difficult than 
ever the circumstance of their abode in various coun- 


tries. It is even suggested that a Congress, held at 
Geneva or some other international center, would give 
new substance to the old myth of the Elders of Zion, and 
thus put all Jews under the monstrous charge of a con- 
spiracy for the seizure and control of the western world 
in their own selfish political and financial interest. What 
makes this speculation seem so strange to a Gentile like 
myself is the sober fact that just such an international 
congress as is now being proposed by Dr. Wise and his 
associates was held at regular intervals during a long 
period of years before the Great War by groups of 
liberal Christians of many lands, and always with great 
advantage and happiness. 

The body to which I refer was known as the Interna- 
tional Conference of Unitarian and Other Liberal Chris- 
tians. It was organized and sustained by isolated Chris- 
tian groups who were intensely conscious of the fact that 
they were feeble minorities existing under great difficul- 
ties in countries dominated by Roman Catholic or ortho- 
dox Protestant ecclesiastical powers, and thus in des- 
perate need of the mutual comfort and strength which 
spring from fellowship. Some of these groups, such as 
the Unitarians in England and America, enjoyed con- 
ditions of perfect freedom, were composed of men and 
women of influence and authority in their respective 
communities, and thus were protected not only from 
persecution but even from casual disability. But there 
were other groups in Spain, in Italy, in Austria, in Rus- 


sia, which were humble and obscure, smitten with heresy-, 
and burdened with troubles which at the best were in- 
conveniences and at the worst were perplexities and 
perils of out-and-out persecution. In many quarters of 
pre-War Europe there lingered the supersititions and 
prejudices of medieval times, and it was not easy to be 
any kind of a Christian outside the order of estab- 
lished orthodoxy. The liberals in the free countries felt 
they owed support and sympathy to their brethren in 
less favored portions of the world. All liberals every- 
where recognized the advantages of affiliation, and 
craved the inspiration of a common voice lifted in pro- 
test against oppressions wherever found, and in acclaim 
of liberty and brotherhood as the shining goals of man's 
long progress into light. So the International Confer- 
ence was established, and flourished until submerged in 
the vast flood of the War. And I have never heard of 
any evil that it ever wrought for any feeble minority of 
liberals anywhere, and know of much good that it did for 
lonely, stricken, and outraged souls. I doubt if, in all 
these years, any event of world-shaking significance was 
consummated by the Conference. But its organization 
marked something like a new era in the history of Chris- 
tian liberalism, and gave self-respect, dignity, and power 
to liberal minorities which had never before dared to lift 
up their heads and voices outside the walls of their own 
insignificant and hidden churches, 

It is inevitably of this International Conference that I 


think, in happy and confident remembrance, as I ponder 
the project of the World Jewish Congress. Here are two 
minority groups, in both cases distinctively religious 
groups, Christian and Jewish, widely scattered over the 
world, and suffering in many places disability and out- 
rage. It is true that the liberal Christian sects, especial- 
ly in modern times, have never endured the awful ban of 
outlawry and death which has again and again been 
pronounced upon Israel, though these sects have known 
what it is to meet the sword, endure the wrack, and 
tread the road of exile. There are few of them that know 
not soil made sacred by the blood of martyrs ! But what- 
ever the difference in degree, there is identity in kind. 
These groups, Christian and Jewish, are minority 
groups, which bear the scorn and frequently the scars 
inflicted upon them by hateful enemies. The Christian 
groups have found fellowship one with another, not only 
inside the borders of a single land, but across the fron- 
tiers of nations in the world at large. These hunted and 
hounded heretics of the Christian faith have dared to 
assert a world character and seek a world influence. 
Why should the Jews not do the same, and thus, like 
their fellow Christians in like manner, vindicate their 
place in the one great body of humanity? 

To this question I find no answer except the reiterated 
assertion that Jews are Jews, and therefore cannot, or 
should not, do what other men have done. To me, a 
mere Gentile, this assertion implies a positively devas- 


tating admission that the plea of the anti-Semite that 
the Jew is different has something to it. I have no 
doubt that the position of the Jew in any country, at 
this dread hour, is different in the sense that it is more 
difficult and painful than any Gentile can perhaps im- 
agine. I agree that this position calls for prudence and 
patience, caution and circumspection. But I deny that 
it demands that the Jew shall slink away, hide himself 
from sight, keep silent, and thereby prove himself not 
only different from but something less than other men 
by declining to exercise the primitive right and duty of 
any man to vindicate his manhood and hold a place of 
honor among his fellows. 

Is there no self-respect in the Jew that he shall ta,ke 
the insults and horrors of this hour lying down? Is there 
no dignity in the Jew that he shall not stand erect to 
the full stature of his being, though this invite new blows 
and bludgeonings ? Is there no compassion in the Jew in 
this country, no common cry of blood, that he shall not 
reach forth his hand and heart to his stricken brethren 
in other less happy lands, and stand shoulder to shoulder 
with him upon the world's great stage in one single com- 
pany of fate? I find it significant that opposition to the 
World Jewish Congress comes from countries where the 
Jew is still comparatively safe America, England, 
Belgium, France. Where the Jew is battling for his very 
life, as in Germany, Poland, and the Balkans, the call 
for conference is insistent. Why should this call not be 


answered, even by those who need not cry for help 
yet? What would men do, if the present crisis of 
Israel were upon them, is manifest. They would long 
since have been in world conference together, to make 
common cause with one another against disaster. If the 
Jews do less, then are they less than other men which 
I cannot and will not believe until I am so taught by 
Jews themselves. 

I am reminded again that I am a Gentile. But even 
so, I am truly as any Jew a member of a minority 
group. I claim to share therefore the psychology, and 
something at least of the experience, of minorities. It is 
from this standpoint that, very humbly, in answer to 
the plea of Jews that they cannot afford to hold a World 
Congress because they are Jews, I beg to say "The 
Jews cannot afford not to have a World Congress, be- 
cause they are Jews!" 

Let the Jew Plead Guilty 

A HIS Gentile is writing this month as a pacifist. He 
thinks that all men, and very particularly Jews, should 
be pacifists, and therefore begins himself. The occasion 
of his pacifist utterance is the recent attack upon the 
patriotism, courage and military valor of the Jews by 
a fittingly anonymous writer in the Army and Navy 
Register who replies to an attack on the R. 0. T. C. by 
one Felix Cohen. 

This article has caused great excitement in the Jew- 
ish press, and has been abundantly and effectively an- 
swered. It is easy to answer, so ignorant is the writer, 
so full of prejudice, so scornful of truth. Take the open- 
ing identification , of the Jews, for example, with the 
Russian Bolsheviki. This militarist is still clinging to the 
old myth that the Soviet revolutionists are mostly Jews, 
just as I imagine he is cherishing the obscene illusion 
that most of the Russian women have been nationalized. 
I would even gamble, if I were a betting man, that he is 
still trembling before the nightmare of the Elders of 
Zion. As a matter of fact, of course, as all informed 
persons know, very few of the Soviet leaders are Jews. 
Many Jews are clerks in the government offices, with- 
out prejudice of any kind, since they are more intelli- 
gent and more highly educated than the great masses of 
the Russian people. But with the exception of one or two 


conspicuous leaders like the great Trotsky, the revolu- 
tionists in the Kremlin were Slavs. 

Note also the nonchalant and yet positive way in 
which this anonymous slanderer passes from Felix Cohen 
as an individual to the Jews as a race. There is not the 
slightest evidence that this man, Felix Cohen, has been 
authorized to speak for anybody but himself. The He- 
brew press as a whole, has been quick enough to disavow 
him. And yet this Army and Navy Register editor ac- 
cepts his words as the words of an entire people and 
treats them as such. We know of no Jew, either rabbi 
or layman, in this country today who is so unanimously 
followed by his people that his opinion on any subject 
would be endorsed as the voice of Israel. Yet the un- 
known Felix Cohen is here lifted at one stroke into this 
proud position of the racial oracle. How "set up" he 
must feel as he thus finds himself clothed with the robes 
of authority. 

How easily also does this anti-Semitic militarist as- 
sume that the Jewish pacifist must have "forgotten the 
persecution of his family in the country from which it 
came." Evidently he has not imagination or sympathy 
enough to realize that it may be that Mr. Cohen is re- 
membering all too well this awful persecution. The sword 
of the militarist has always been the sword of the per- 
secutor. This weapon is two-edged it has slashed no 
more furiously at those feared as enemies abroad than 
at those despised as aliens at home. Perhaps Mr. Cohen 


suspects that persecution will never end until militarism 
is disarmed and war disavowed. If so, he is a man in- 
finitely wiser than his critic. 

It is because this R. O. T. C. champion has thus 
showed himself in his ignorance and prejudice to be so 
vulnerable to counter-attack that the Hebrew press has 
taken delight in falling upon him without mercy. Yet 
we marvel that our Jewish brethren have become so ex- 
cited, and especially that they have resented so bitterly 
the main burden of what this anonymous army spokes- 
man has to say about young Cohen. For what is the 
chief charge levelled against this son of Israel? It is that 
he is "an internationalist," and thus representative of 
Jews who "are by instinct internationalists ;" that he is 
opposed to "the spirit of high patriotism, love and loy- 
alty which send men out to die for their country with 
songs in their hearts ;" that he has, like the Jews as a 
race, "little stomach for military service" and for the 
business of dying for one's country. But is this a slander, 
an insult? Yes, insofar as this man charges that "Jews 
are conspicuous by their absence" from our American 
wars. This is a simple and obvious lie as statistics prove. 
In the World War, in any case, Jews had to be as con- 
spicuous as their fellow citizens of other religions and 
races since they were conscripted on an equal basis of 
military selection. 

But the Jewish press points to the main burden of the 


charge, that the Jews are internationalists and do not 
want to fight in war, and undertake desperately to refute 
it. We have seen one paper which has hauled out the 
public records of gallant Jewish soldiers, published pic- 
tures of Jewish heroes adorned with medals, told stories 
of sacrifice and bloodshed in the battle lines, etc. All of 
which is excellent from the standpoint of the accepted 
standards of our day! But is this what the Jews are 
standing for? Is this what the Jews have stood for in 
the past? Is this what they would be remembered by 
yesterday, and would achieve tomorrow? Is it the fight- 
ing of the Maccabees which is their chief glory, or the 
prophecies of the Isaiahs and the Jeremiahs and the 

It is the happy fortune of the Jew, if he has any hap- 
py fortune, that he has become an internationalist before 
the rest of the world, and thus is in a position to lead on 
the way to a united world of brotherhood and peace. It 
is the glory of the Jew that, long before any other peo- 
ple upon this earth, he caught the vision of swords beaten 
into plowshares and spears into pruning hooks, and thus 
in fidelity to the divine spirit within his flesh put by arms 
and fighting and war forever. It is the miracle of the 
Jew that he has met the assault of the fire and sword of 
his persecutors not by striking back, not by murdering 
in the name of God or country, but by suffering and 
dying and thus in the spirit surviving the worst that the 
material power of his enemies could bring against him. 


Let him not be ashamed of his internationalism, his 
pacifism, his religion. He has resisted swords for cen- 
turies. Let him now resist swords and thus vindicate 
afresh the integrity of his inner spirit which is the true 
ark of his sacred covenant. 

Live and Let Live 

/unions and tragic are the charges that are brought 
against the Jews. In other cases consistency, logic; 
common-sense are necessary to conviction, but not in 
the case of Israel. Thus in Germany you can learn that 
the Jews caused the World War for their own advantage, 
and then deliberately and wickedly lost it! The Jews 
are all Communists, Bolsheviki, "reds," and at the same 
time are international bankers who exploit the helpless 
workers and use their farrflung financial power to ac- 
cumulate enormous fortunes ! The Jews insist upon main- 
taining their own racial and religious exclusiveness, and 
thus constitute an alien group which lives altogether 
apart from the unified body of the Reich; at the same 
time, we are told, they invade and monopolize the Ger- 
man professions, insist upon intermarrying with German 
stock, and even upon intermingling their own native 
blood in illegitimate relationships ! The Jews worship 
tribal gods and practise heathen religious rites, and yet 
have given to Germany, as to all the western world, that 
Christian faith by which the Occident has lived through 
nearly two thousand years! It all means something, I 
suppose this concatenation of contradictory con- 
spiracy but my poor brain is unable to comprehend the 

It all reminds me of an experience I had in Calif or- 


ma some years ago in the matter of prejudice against 
the Japanese. Sitting at a dinner-table on a certain eve- 
ning, I was told of the way the immigrants from Nippon 
had crowded into the town and insisted upon sending 
their little children to the public schools. "What are 
you going to do with a people," I was asked, "who thrust 
themselves into our American life in this outrageous 
fashion?" A few days later I was a member of another 
dinner-party, and was talking with a highly cultured 
woman from another part of the state. "These Japa- 
nese," she said, "are impossible. They are so exclusive, 
so clannish. We have tried and tried in my town to 
Americanize them to get their children into the pub- 
lic schools. But the parents won't send them." Each 
story may have been true, or untrue. The point is that, 
in the case of an oppressed minority, it's damned if you 
do, and damned if you don't ! 

I have been thinking of these absurdities in connec- 
tion with the Palestinian problem and in relation to cer- 
tain aspects of the German problem. Take just one il- 
lustration of illogicality which would win the prize, it 
seems to me, at any intellectual bazaar ! 

We are told, as the crowning argument against Zion- 
ism, that the Jews do not belong in Palestine. It is true 
that they flourished there for hundreds of year, until 
driven out by the destruction of Jerusalem and the con- 
quests of Rome. They stamped their language upon the 
landscape, the memory of their kings and prophets upon 


the hills and valleys; to this day the holy places of 
Israel outnumber all the others. But in 70 A.D. there 
. came an end to the occupancy of the Jews, who have 
been wandering all these centuries since over the face of 
the earth. Palestine belongs today, so we are told, to 
the Arabs. For a thousand years yea, for thirteen hun- 
dred years these native followers of Mohammed have 
populated the land. They have built their villages and 
reared their shrines. They have pastured their flocks, 
plowed the soil, and trod the highways. They have 
grown into the country by rearing successive genera- 
tions who have produced wealth by their labor, culti- 
vated knowledge by their studies and glorified a country 
which more and more through the years they have made 
their own. There are other people in Palestine, to be 
sure. As a holy land, both Jews and Christians can of- 
fer claims altogether superior to these of the Moslems. 
But are thirteen hundred years to count for nothing? 
Are these people to be driven from their habitations, 
their occupations, their temples, and left to wander 
wherever a not too cruel world will give them shelter? 
These Arabs have rights the rights of occupancy, her- 
itage, tradition. Woe be to the Jews who would drive 
them out and take over their possessions ! 

With this principle firmly impressed upon our minds, 
let us now turn to Germany. Here the Jews are being 
driven to foreign lands, or herded into ghettoes, by con- 
ditions of indescribable oppression. These German Jews 


do not belong in the Reich, we are told ; they are inter- 
lopers who must be destroyed, or else driven back to 
where originally they came from. But let us think about 
this a minute! These Jews came into Germany only a 
few generations later than the Arabs came into Pales- 
tine. It was more than a thousand years ago that Israel 
first invaded the Fatherland. During all these succeed- 
ing centuries, these Jews have reared their homes, bred 
their children, done their work, practised their pro- 
fessions, and more and more become a part of the life 
and culture of their adopted country. The names of 
German Jews crowd the annals of German art, music and 
literature, glorify the record of German science and 
philosophy, have their honorable place among the work- 
ers who have toiled and the soldiers who have died for 
their native land. This gives the Jews no exclusive pos- 
session of Germany. When have they ever suggested or 
striven after such possession? But it would seem as 
though it does entitle them to their place in a realm 
which they have themselves done so much to build. If 
the Arabs are to stay in Palestine, and incidentally shut 
out all later comers, because they entered the land so 
long ago and have occupied it since, why should not the 
Jews be allowed to remain and flourish in Germany for 
the same reason? Surely, if an Arab fellaheen in Shechem 
is to be scrupulously protected in his occupancy of a 
region, which he plows with a wooden stick, because his 
ancestors have squatted on this soil for centuries before 


him, how much more a Jewish physician or banker, or 
common day laborer or student, in Berlin, in Dresden, 
in Nuremberg, whose fathers have served not merely the 
synagogue but the state during a thousand years of in- 
telligent and devoted citizenship? 

A good rule works both ways. But both ways, in 
Palestine and in Germany alike, the Jews get the small 
end of the bargain. From the one country they are shut 
out because they have been absent for more than a thou- 
sand years, and another people have long enjoyed their 
heritage. Prom the other country they are driven out 
because they have been present for a thousand years, and 
another people would now enjoy their heritage. Out or 
in, the Jews are flogged with the same stick, barred and 
banned by the same edict. No matter what the conditions, 
for them or against them, they suffer just the same. 

The one solution of such problems is withheld from 
the Jews, or denied them altogether. "Live and let live" 
is a sound principle which never fails in questions of hu- 
man ill. The Jews would not drive the Arabs from Pales- 
tine, and thus rob them of their possessions. They would 
simply exercise their inalienable right to enter and re- 
claim the ancient land of their fathers, capable today of 
supporting a people five times the Arab population, and 
make the Arabs partners with themselves in the new 
commonwealth. The Jews in Germany have had no de- 
sire to control or monopolize a country in which they 
count less than one per cent of the total population. 


They have striven only to do their best for a nation and 
a culture in which through a thousand years of patient 
life they have come to have their share. The idea that 
they should be driven from Germany is as gross a cruel- 
ty as the idea that they should drive the Arabs from 
Palestine is a mocking farce. In both countries are peo- 
ples who together share a heritage which together they 
should foster and enjoy. "God has made them brothers, 
let justice make them friends." 


Palestine Is Zion 

"The Zionists are miles ahead of every other com- 
munity here in every way. After visiting the Jezreel 
colonies . , . / understand your enthusiasm in 
your book for the Jewish colonisation." 



LHESE sentences from a letter, recently received from 
Jerusalem, were written by a young Christian. This man, 
called to Palestine to take up an important work there, 
had no special knowledge of the country, and certainly 
no special concern for Zionism. I doubt if he knew any- 
thing about the great Jewish adventure apart from such 
casual information as may be picked up by an intelli- 
gent and alert mind in the course of casual reading in 
newspapers, magazines, and books. His bias, if he had 
any, was quite as likely to be against the Zionist ex- 
periment as for it. Of course, when he found himself sud- 
denly confronted with a journey to the Near East and 
with a work of high responsibility and importance in 
the Holy Land, he began at once to prepare himself for 
the task ahead. In a spirit not only of conscientiousness 
but of eager desire, he sought all sources of information, 
both personal and printed, which were available. But, 
even so, he must have come to Palestine, as I came three 
and a half years ago, with a mind fresh for the sowing 
of first impressions. All his study and inquiry had been 


but a preparation for what he was at last to acquire as 
real knowledge on the spot. 

Now, after an initial period of observation and in- 
vestigation, this Christian writes me enthusiastically 
of the Zionists. They are "miles ahead," he says, "of 
every other community here in every way." What are 
these other communities with which he thus compares 
the community of Zion? 

First, there is the old, non-Zionist Jewish community 
those scattered remnants of the old Israel in Jerusa- 
lem, Hebron, Safed. It was astonishing to me to dis- 
cover, on my visit to Palestine, that this community ex- 
isted at all. I had always supposed, as I think most per- 
sons suppose, that the Holy Land was swept clean of its 
native population by the great invasion and conquest of 
Titus in the year 70 A.D. The dispersion of the Jews at 
that tragic time had meant to me a complete dispersion. 
But it was nothing of the kind! Jews were left behind 
after all the burning and slaying a miserable remnant, 
hiding in the mountains, clinging to the ancient shrines, 
worshipping still their fathers' God. And that remnant 
has survived the ages ! The tides of war have flowed 
back and forth over this unhappy land, leaving behind 
an awful desert of destruction. Races and religions have 
succeeded one another like the passing pageant of a 
dream. Storm and drought, starvation and pestilence 
have swept the valleys and hills, the visitation of dread 
doom. But, with the unexampled tenacity characteristic 


of the tribe, these Jews still endure a withered, tough, 
sinewy, steadfast people, perpetuating into our day the 
traditions of David and his kindgdom. They are pictur- 
esque and heroic, these ancient sons of Judah. As I 
stood one night in a synagogue in Safed, and watched a 
group of gnarled and grizzled old men discuss the Torah 
with an absorption so complete that my presence was 
no more noticed than that of a shadow on the mouldering 
wall, I saw as though in vision the tragic pilgrimage of 
this people a march through the centuries more sub- 
lime and terrible than the march of the first Children of 
Israel through the Wilderness. In the language, the gar- 
ments, the seamed faces, the tortured minds, I could 
touch, as it were, the priests and prophets of the Bible. 
But this community of scattered Jews has no significance 
for Palestine today or tomorrow. It is a survival, like 
the very deposits of the ancient Tels dug up these days 
by the archeologists' pick and spade. 

Secondly, there is the Christian community, by which 
I mean specifically those religious orders which swarm 
in this historic land of the New Testament like locusts 
upon a wasted harvest field. One sees these orders wher- 
ever the memory of Jesus touches any inch of soil in 
Bethlehem, in Nazareth, in the holy places of Jerusa- 
lem. Every spot must have its shrine, every town its 
temple. And as Christians have been notorious through 
all the centuries for inward discord and dissension, 
wherever these orders touch one another they yield to 


envy, strife, and hatred. That most sacred of all places, 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which should be the 
very sign and symbol of Christian unity, is per contra 
the raging center of confusion. There are other Chris- 
tians in Palestine the Templar settlements, the Amer- 
ican colony, the Jerusalem Y.M.C.A., a few scattered 
schools and churches welcome tokens that the religion 
of Jesus still survives. But these are but fringes, so to 
speak, upon the edge of a swamp of perverted and 
poisonous pietism. The Christian community of Pales- 
tine, as rooted deep in the soil of rival ecclesiasticisms, 
is a noisome and a noxious thing. 

Thirdly, there is the Arab community. This is the Mid- 
dle Ages come to life again the Moslem Middle Ages 
to be sure, but still the Middle Ages. By this we mean 
a society of poor, ignorant, superstitious, toiling me- 
nials upon the land, and of proud, rich, idle land-owners 
and nobility in the cities. Here survives that ancient 
feudal system of peasant and lord, which, long since 
dead and buried in Europe, has no future anywhere in 
this contemporary world. There is a great awakening, 
to be sure, of Islam in our time. We see this in the re- 
vival of a religion now undergoing a quickening very 
similar to that of Christianity four hundred years ago. 
We see it in the stirring of materialistic forces and 
fervors which sweep the East today somewhat as it 
swept the West yesterday. But this awakening of Mo- 
hammedan civilization, parallel in so many ways to the 


earlier awakening of Christian civilization, has hardly 
as yet stirred Arab Palestine, so far as the common 
people are concerned. The Arabs in the Holy Land are 
easily aroused by propaganda appeals to ignorance and 
superstition, but in essence they lie as inert today as a 
thousand years ago, save as they have been touched, 
like the dead bones of Ezekiel's vision, by the magic life 
of Zion ! The future of the Arab community in the Holy 
Land rests now with their new Jewish brethren on the 
soil of Jezreel. This is the new world of Palestine. And it 
is because the overlords of Islam see this fact so clearly, 
that they fight so bitterly the new alliance of Arab and 

Lastly, there is the English community important 
not to Palestine but to Britain and the Empire. Of the 
place of the English in Palestine, it is not for me to speak 
here. There is in this problem an entanglement of good 
and bad, of choice and necessity, of fate and freedom, 
which only the future, and hardly this, can unravel. But 
it may be respectfully submitted that, from the stand- 
point of community life, the English exist in Palestine 
as they exist in India, fundamentally as imperialists con- 
cerned with their dominant imperial interests. Whatever 
the exigencies of the moment, the future of Palestine, as 
of India, can only be forecast in terms of a restoration 
of the country from rulers to people. The English can 
exist in Palestine, in other words, only so long as an 
empire can resist the steady advance of political and 


social democracy. From this standpoint, the English in 
Palestine cannot be regarded as a community any more 
than the soldiery and police of any occupied country 
can be regarded as a community. A community, by the 
very definition of the word itself, is something held in 
common. English rule in Jerusalem is something held 
and exercised apart. The English in Palestine are a com- 
munity in the Empire yes ! But not a community in the 
new Palestine of Zion ! 

The new Palestine of Zion! How inevitably this 
phrase drops from the pen! For the new Palestine is 
Zion. Travel anywhere in the Holy Land today, and 
wherever you touch the future as distinguished from the 
past, vision as distinguished from custom and tradi- 
tion, life as distinguished from decay and death, you 
find yourself in contact with these heroic Jews who, gath- 
ered from many places, born of many races, speaking 
many tongues, are yet welded together in the heat of the 
one great passion for the restoration of Israel. "The 
Zionists are miles ahead of every other community here 
in every way," says my correspondent. Of course they 
are ! These Zionists have a work to do, a life to develop, 
a soul to quicken. And they have caught a vision which 
brings light at last into all the dark places of their 
ancestral inheritance. The old Jews, the Christians, the 
Arab fellaheen these are of the past dead, or worse 
than dead ! The English these are of the present, and 
perhaps of the future, but a present and a future which 


are alien to all the interests of Palestine. But the Zion- 
ists these are of the real future. They live as a child 
lives, as a prophet lives, as God lives. They are life itself 
coming into ever greater and fairer bloom. They are 
the spirit engaged once more upon its old but ever 
new task of fresh creation. If Palestine lives today 
in its own beauty and by its own right, it is because the 
Zionists have made it live. Palestine is theirs because 
they have possessed it. Not by the conquest of spear or 
sword, but by that nobler conquest of the heart which 
quickens into life the soil, the land, the cause which it 
devoutly loves ! 

The Rebirth of Zion 

IEODOR HERZL must be ranked as one of the few su- 
preme prophets and statesmen of the nineteenth century. 
His vision of Zionism, like Mazzini's vision of united 
Italy, constitutes one of the great spiritual conceptions 
of modern times. His program of Zionism rivalled Bis- 
marck's program of German empire, and was as benevo- 
lent in policy as the Iron Chancellor's was malevolent. 
So different is the world of Israel today from what it was 
forty years ago, on the occasion of the gathering of the 
first Zionist Congress, that we are tempted to forget the 
situation which Herzl faced, and thus to ignore the 
change which his foresight and heroism wrought wellnigh 
singlehanded. But we have only to recall that situation, 
to revive in our minds what has so long since disappeared 
from our lives, in order to realize that the Jewish prob- 
lem in 1937 is new as compared with that of 1897. And 
the cause is Zionism ! 

In one sense the lot of Israel was much the same four 
decades ago as it is today, and indeed has always been 
through the centuries of the Christian era. The Jews at 
that time were in the midst of a long-sustained period of 
persecution, only less terrible in range and intensity than 
that which now prevails. The fierce pograms in Russia 
in the early 80's had raged like a hurricane in that be- 
nighted and cruel land. The waves of terror, lashed by 


the tornado of fear and hate which followed upon the 
assassination of Alexander II, beat upon Israel long- 
after the original impact of the storm had passed, and 
extended the area of disturbance to countries far re- 
moved from the territory of the Tsar. The occasion was 
a revival of anti-Semitism as fierce as anything our west- 
ern world has known until our own distracted age. Long 
since the Jews had begun their pilgrimage anew upon 
"the eternal road," The flood of exile, which had burst 
out of Russia like water over a broken dam in the first 
years of persecution, had never ceased. Crowds of home- 
less and wandering people continued to flow not only 
from Russia, but also from Poland, Rumania, Hungary. 
Much of this tide moved into Germany, and more into 
America ; and trickling streams found their way into 
Palestine, and there fertilized the barren soil of the 
ancient and lost homeland with the founding of the' first 
halutsim. It was a desperate time, as this, our time, is 
similarly desperate. It thus seems appallingly familiar 
and yet on closer examination is so different ! 

In his biography of Theodor Herzl, Jacob de Haas re- 
marks upon the amazing fact that the great Jewish mi- 
grations of the late years of the nineteenth century, 
under the lash and sword of persecution, made little im- 
pression upon the consciousness of Jews in America. The 
reaction of the Jewish press in this country, he says, was 
slight. American Israel, of course, was stirred but after 
a fashion more or less stereotyped by the unbroken ex- 


perience of generations. The Jews already planted in 
this free land gave succor to their stricken brethren as 
they poured through the immigration stations into the 
slums of our eastern seaports but held the new arrivals 
more or less at arms length. The Russian and Polish 
Jews were not popular with, nor was their plight sensed 
by, the Spanish, Portuguese and German Jews in Amer- 
ica to whom terror was no longer a real experience. 
Above all, the synagogues in this republic saw no solu- 
tion to the endless problem of misery, no answer to the 
eternal challenge of persecution. It was a burden to be 
borne and at last, God grant, to be escaped in the free 
democracies of the western world. This was the attitude 
forty years ago of American Jews, and I imagine also 
of English, French, and German Jews, many of whom 
were far advanced in a process of separation from the 
ancient heritage of Israel. These Jews had found security 
or thought they had! and were willing to buy and 
hold it at the price of the disintegration of the noblest 
spiritual tradition in history. 

And now all this is changed ! In the present revival of 
anti-Semitism, this overwhelming storm of persecution 
which is sweeping Israel in fiercer fury than any storm 
that has been known since the Dark Ages, there is no 
lack of response from western Jewry. No one could say 
today, for example, that the sufferings of German and 
Polish and Rumanian Jews are making no particular 
impress upon the mind of Israel in America. The Jews 


in this country did not have to wait for the tragic drama 
of Hitler to arouse them. They were already moved with 
compassion and outrage when the first anti-Semitic out- 
breaks followed upon the close of the World War. To- 
day, after four years of the Nazi horror, these American 
Jews are enduring an inward agony comparable point 
by point to the outward agony of those in Europe who 
have perished or are perishing. Involved in this reac- 
tion, of course, is the frightful discovery that the secur- 
ity which so many Jews thought they had found for 
themselves and their children was a mere phantasm of 
the imagination. If German Jews, more thoroughly as- 
similated than any other members of the tribe, could 
suffer such calamity, what Jews anywhere were safe? 
A sudden sense of racial identity, so long dormant in 
many places, swept and is sweeping modern Israel like 
the tremor of an earthquake which threatens to swal- 
low all. 

But it is not merely fear which is at work here. It is a 
sense of unity which springs from a higher and nobler 
source. It is Zionism moving within the souls of the Jews. 
It is the spirit of Herzl standing triumphant by the 
hearthstone of the home and before the ark of the 
synagogue. More than either friend or enemy of the 
new Palestine understands, the Zionist adventure has 
seized upon and transformed their lives. What has been 
going on unconsciously for four decades in the minds 
of millions of Jews, in all parts of the world, now rises 


above the threshold of consciousness, so to speak, and 
becomes suddenly a passion and an ideal. It is like a light 
kindled in the sunlight and revealed only when the 
darkness of night engulfs the world. Zionism, in spite of 
themselves, has remade the Jews. This movement is the 
rebirth of Israel. It needed only the return of persecu- 
tion, outlawry and death, the old fate of the fathers 
once again, to reveal what Herzl and his cause have 
really done. 

PEAKING as a Gentile looking at my Jewish brethren 
here in our common country, I would say that we now 
see against the black background of European horror 
three things which Zionism has given to American Jewry : 
First of all, it has given a world consciousness. Jews 
in this country are no longer separated from Jews in 
other countries in a selfish satisfaction with America as 
their own especial and favored destiny. In the quest of 
Zion they find themselves identified with Jews everywhere 
in working out a fulfillment of the Prophets' dream. In 
each annual Zionist congress there is a world congress 
in which American Jews meet with Jews from a dozen 
other countries in an interest and an endeavor which 
make them one. Thus is parochialism ended, and an 
Israel long scattered through the earth, like the severed 
limbs of Osiris, joined together again in the common 
organism of a common life. Zionism has given to the. 


Jews what the Jews have not had since the destruction 
of Jerusalem a united front ! And in this front Amer- 
ican Jews hold their proud and happy place with Eng- 
lish and French and German and Polish Jews all now 
primarily Jews in the rebuilding of the old waste places 
of the homeland which is their own again. 

Secondly, Zionism has given to American Jews, as to 
all Jews everywhere, a vision. If the Jewish mind had in 
the old days tended to become sterile, it was not only 
because this mind was cruelly cut off from the living 
thought of the world, but also because it was all too much 
absorbed in the mere meticulous preservation of the 
minutae of ancient law and ritual. If Jewish life through 
centuries of struggle for mere physical survival had 
tended to become materialistic, it was because it lacked 
a spiritual outlook to quicken the inner impulses of the 
soul. What Israel has tragically lacked all these years 
has been a future to match its past. Through sheer force 
of ghastly circumstance, the Jews have been bound back 
into the bondage of old days. To lay down their bones 
in the soil of Judaea was the one hope that burned in 
many a tortured heart. The dream of the Messiah, to 
be sure, had not died; but it endured as a light seen 
brightly in some ancient time and preserved now as a 
memory of wonder. All too well this Messianic hope 
matched the sterile Christian dogma of the second com- 
ing of the Lord ! But now in Zionism came suddenly a 
future, a real future. The Jew was no longer a survivor 


merely from yesterday but a pioneer also of tomorrow. 
He could live in terms not merely of the Law but also 
of the Prophets. The glorious past, so loyally preserved, 
could now be made to live again in a future no less 
gloriQus. Zionism was a vision which made life worth the 
living even amid humiliation, terror, and despair. 

Lastly, Zionism has given to American Jews, as to 
all Jews, a solution of their age-old problem. What to 
do, save to flee one knows not whither this has ever 
been the agony of Israel in Christendom ! It is the one 
agony which could have made even more terrible the suf- 
fering of German Jews under the iron heel of Hitler. 
I had the thought, when I was in Germany in 1935, that 
had those unhappy Jews no-t been able to answer that 
fateful question what to do? the horror would have 
been beyond all bearing. But they had an answer to the 
question. The answer was Palestine! They could send 
their children to that land of their fathers. They them- 
selves, many of them, could go there and begin life anew. 
What was lost in the German fatherland could be found 
again in the Jewish homeland. So the German Jews had 
hope, as the Polish Jews have hope today, for "the 
eternal road" now leads somewhere. It was a goal which 
has not hitherto been seen, because it had not hitherto 

Not that all persecuted Jews can flee to Palestine! 
This is no more possible than that all persecuted Catho- 
lics can flee to Rome. But more Jews can find refuge 


in the Holy Land than has yet been imagined. If the 
Palestine of David supported four millions of people in 
the ancient day, it can support as many and more today. 
There is no reason why Palestine should not eventually 
receive within her borders at least three million Jews, and 
this is more than five times the number of all the Jews 
living in Germany when Hitler came to power. The mar- 
gin for Polish and Rumanian and Galician Jews is thus 
considerable. Eut why should all Jews, even in persecu- 
tion, return or desire to return to Palestine? The won- 
der of Zion is that the physical refuge on the map is a 
spiritual refuge within the soul. The homeland means 
a new self-respect, a nobler personal dignity, a self- 
reliance and courage and faith, for all Jews wherever 
they may be. The days of fawning and cringing are over. 
The days of adjustment and assimilation, of "escape," 
are likewise over. Jews now stand upon their feet, and 
look again the whole world in the face. For their prob- 
lem is answered, and their destiny therefore secure. Herzl 
was the new Moses who ended the long period of Israel's 
second slavery by leading Israel again into the Promised 

These days are dark days for us all. They are espe- 
cially dark for Jews. An hour of more dreadful darkness 
for Jews may come with the report of the Royal Com- 
mission in London. But be not afraid! Zion shines as a 
light that cannot be extinguished, nor even greatly 
dimmed. These four decades, in other words, have not 


been in vain. What has been done by heroic pioneers is 
done. It can be undone not by any enemies or hypocritic- 
al friends of the Jews anywhere, but only by Jews them- 
selves if they lose heart. Let Israel be faithful, and the 
God of Israel will not fail. "Shall I bring to the birth, 
and not cause to bring forth? saith the Lord. Shall I 
cause to bring forth, and shut the womb ? saith thy God. 
. . . As one whom his mother comforteth, so will I 
comfort you. And ye shall be comforted in Jerusalem." 


The Nazi Threat To Freedom 

AN BLOODSHED and suffering, the sheer agony of the 
flesh, the Bolshevist revolution was undoubtedly more 
terrible than the Nazi. But the former upheaval was 
never a repudiation of progress, nor an attack upon the 
mind and spirit of the race. Thus, there was no reversion 
in Russia. At their worst, the Soviets simply took over 
the traditional practices of the Tsars, and continued a 
repression to which the people had been inured for cen- 
turies. There was no loss of civil rights in Russia, for 
the reason that one cannot lose what one has never had. 
Liberty did not give way to tyranny, since there was no 
liberty. But in that area of human experience which is 
most important to the welfare and happiness of the 
great masses of mankind namely, the economic there 
has come during the last decade a liberation of the Rus- 
sian people so pervasive and so potent as to constitute 
the one most stupendous act of emancipation that is 
known to history. One cannot hope to understand the 
work of the Bolsheviki unless one sees that the revolu- 
tionists took a vast welter of men and women, ignorant, 
superstitious, degraded, existing on the lowest levels of 
human subsistence, and are now raising them, step by ' 
painful step, toward the highest levels of comfort, cul- 
ture, and enlightenment. The peasants, the workers, the 
intellectuals, the Jews, the nationals, ninety per cent of 


the population of Russia, are now for the first time free. 
The people of this enormous land, untouched by the 
Renaissance and the Reformation which delivered the 
peoples of Western Europe from the bondage of the 
Dark Ages, have at last been quickened into life, and 
thus started upon the way to progress. Whatever the 
terror of the early years, there began in Russia, in 1917, 
a movement destined to achieve a larger and nobler lib- 
erty than man has yet known upon this earth. 

But Hitler has gone backward. He is retracing the 
progress of a thousand years. He is destroying the lib- 
erty bought at a great price through ages of struggle 
for the light. 

It is not difficult to describe what man has been doing, 
or trying to do, through all these centuries gone by. 
Popular treatises like H. G. Wells's "The Outline of 
History," and Hendrik Van Loon's "The Story of Man- 
kind," have made familiar the trends of social evolution. 
We feel the impulse of the movement like the theme of a 
symphony, growing, expanding, caught in mad intrica- 
cies of discord, lost in chaotic cadences of sound, but 
always emerging and rising into the prophetic paean of 
final and exultant triumph. 

What man has been doing is to find himself, to dis- 
cover and fulfill his essential being. He has been hunting 
out the inner qualities of his genius, and then expressing 
them in outward manifestations of thought and life. His- 


tory is the record of the human struggle to give man a 
chance, each man to do his work, to speak his word, to 
exalt his soul, and therewith to prove his kinship with 
the divine. In the beginning, man was immersed in the 
mass. He was little better than one drop of water in the 
flood, one animal in the swarming herds of animals. His 
task was to discover his individuality, and to develop it 
for the enrichment of the race and the vindication of his 
own spirit. 

Very early it was found possible for the few to estab- 
lish conditions which would favor the satisfaction of 
their desires and the fulfillment of their powers. The 
strong, the aggressive, and at last the intellectual could 
gain ascendancy over their fellows, and subdue them to 
their purposes. In one short and glorious period in 
ancient Greece, a chosen class of aristocrats, supported 
by a slave population, demonstrated for all time the 
supreme capacity of the human mind. But opportunity 
enjoyed by the few has been inexorably demanded by 
the many. Steadily, through the ages, has spread the 
pressure of the masses for larger liberty. In periods of 
ignorance and superstition, under reigns of tyranny and 
oppression, man has been restless and resistless. Instinc- 
tively he has felt his powers and demanded freedom for 
their expression. Thus, at long intervals, he has broken 
out into rebellions and revolutions ; and at great climac- 
tic moments of release, achieved liberations which have 
marked the milestones of his progress. This has been the 


spirit of liberalism at work the spirit which has ended 
slavery, destroyed kings, established democracy, public 
education and the popular franchise, emancipated wo- 
men, sought international peace, and today, in vast ex- 
periments of collectivism, is laying deep and sure the 
foundations of that economic security which will at last 
give freedom to mankind. 

It is from this point of view that the roots of our con- 
temporary civilization, which have blossomed into this 
enlightened liberalism of our day, go far back into the 
past. It might be argued, in no wholly fantastic sense, 
that the prophets of Israel were liberals, also the seers of 
Greece and Rome, and the apostles of Christianity. The 
Middle Ages had their nascent theories of popular rights. 
The Renaissance was a flowering of the free mind, and 
the Reformation of the free soul. The Puritan revolution 
in England, for all its grim terror, had the liberal spirit 
in its heart; and the second revolution of 1688 was ac- 
companied by what John Morley called "the reasoned 
vindication of liberal principles" in the writings of John 
Locke. It was this movement of democracy, accompanied 
by the influences of the French Illumination, which pre- 
cipitated the American Revolution, and then widened, 
like a spreading flood, until it engulfed the western world. 
Frenchmen, Englishmen, Germans remade their nations 
in the wake of Napoleon's vast upheavals. A generation 
of reaction served only to bring the outbreak of 1848, 
and the far-flung liberation of the '60's and ? 70*s, which 


penetrated for a brief moment even the dark fastnesses of 
Russia. By the last quarter of the nineteenth century, 
liberalism had achieved a civilization. It had consoli- 
dated its victories and was preparing a final triumph, 
when forces which it had itself released and not yet 
brought under control, produced the incredible catastro- 
phe of the Great War and its aftermath. 

If we ask what this liberalism was, and still is, we may 
find it set forth in Thomas Carlyle's famous proclama- 
tion of "faith in the imperishable dignity of man, and in 
the high vocation to which, through his earthly his- 
tory, he has been appointed." This faith reveals itself in 
certain virtues self-respect, self-reliance, tolerance, 
charity, justice, freedom, and brotherhood. It avoids 
certain vices race prejudice, national pride, class con- 
sciousness, intolerance, tyranny, and violence. It seeks 
with single eye the establishment of such social condi- 
tions as shall most speedily and permanently liberate men 
for the full and free expression of their essential individu- 
ality. The great success of liberalism has been in the 
political field, where effective institutions have been 
established for the organization and proper functioning 
of the common life. The great failure of liberalism has 
been in the economic field, where autocracy has enslaved 
man to poverty, and therewith undermined and destroyed 
all other liberties. The tragedy of liberalism has been 
its collapse under the impact of the surviving barbarism 
of war. Yet there endures the dream of that ideal com- 


monwealth where war shall be no more, and poverty done 
away, and man shall no longer "labor in vain, nor bring 
forth for calamity," but live and love in the free ex- 
pression of his own native being. 

It is this dream which Hitler would destroy, this prog- 
ress of the ages which he would undo. If life is worth 
living for enlightened men today, it is because of these 
ineffably precious possessions which have come to us 
from the free spirits of the past. If history can justify 
itself, it must be through the achievements of that liberal 
tradition which has slowly but surely emancipated the 
race. If there is such a thing as progress, it is to be found 
in that steady movement toward social stability and eco- 
nomic security which combine to release men for the 
"filling of their day/' But all this Hitler would deny. He 
would go not forward, but backward a full thousand 
years. He would abrogate all modern liberties, restore all 
ancient tyrannies, and therewith destroy, as though by 
one fell blast of doom, all that man has achieved since he 
emerged, with infinite pain and loss, from out the abyss 
of the Dark Ages. And as though by the will of ironic 
gods, this Nazi Fuehrer has been let loose to work his 
spell upon the most intelligent, enlightened, and highly 
cultured people of contemporary Europe ! 

What Hitler would do, and as a matter of fact is now 
doing, is to restore the horde of primitive and savage 
days. We speak of the Nazi movement as nationalistic 


in character a rebirth of an intense passion for the 
separate nation as over against the single body of hu- 
manity. But the nation is the product of a long process 
of evolution. It contains within itself a myriad differen- 
tiations of thought and life which are the sure evidence 
of progress. While not the end of the historical process, 
which must be the ultimate production of the world state, 
the nation represents a far stage of advancement in this 
process. But Hitler would undo the nation, as he would 
undo every other late achievement of man's day upon this 
earth. For what he is concerned with is not nationalism, 
but tribalism. He seeks to bring back upon the stage of 
history the horde, which swamps all individuality in the 
human mass which lives one uniform life of iron disci- 
pline and rigid custom, which yields obedience to one 
great chief or lord, which marches armed with lust and 
hate against the world, and which moves to destroy all 
evidences of beauty, enlightenment, and culture. 

If Nazism be not the horde rampant and triumphant, 
how else may we explain the repudiation by the Nazi 
leaders of historic Christianity, pre-eminently in its 
spirit a religion of liberal idealism wherein man perhaps 
was first discovered in the full dignity of his essential 
divinity, and the revival by these same leaders of the 
pagan faith which possessed the ancient Germanic tribes 
when they roamed the trans-Rhenish and trans-Danub- 
ian forests, and later broke the frontiers to overwhelm 
the Empire ? I find a supreme significance in this remark- 


able recrudescence in the modern world of these primeval 
Nordic cults. Thus on July 30, 1933, for example, more 
than 100,000 Hitlerites, gathered in convention at Eisen- 
ach, declared their responsibility "for our Germanic 
origin before the divine reality," and sought the restora- 
tion of Odin, Baldur, Freia, and other Teutonic gods ta 
the altars from which they had been hurled by Christen- 
dom. Such reversion to Wotan in place of God, and to 
Siegfried in place of Christ, is not nationalism at all. It 
is something far back of nationalism, back to the shad- 
ows of the dark days and savage peoples. It is tribalism 
alive in our world again the return of a whole people 
to forms of primitive paganism from which we had fond- 
ly imagined that mankind had escaped forever. 

Hitler, I repeat, is bringing back the horde, restoring 
the days and ways of barbarism. It is in this sense that 
his movement is so terrible a menace to liberalism, so 
ghastly an assault upon all the rich intellectual and 
spiritual treasures of our age, a frontal attack upon 
civilization itself. In Hitler and his storm troops we find 
the fulfillment of Lord Macauley's famous prophecy 
that, whereas the ancient civilizations were destroyed by 
barbarian hordes which overwhelmed them from without, 
our modern civilization may well be destroyed by bar- 
barian hordes bred deep within the womb of our own life. 

If Germany were alone in the hands of the Nazis, we 
would not be disturbed, though the Hitler horror would 
still remain one of the supreme catastrophes of modern 


times, and Germany itself a tragedy as terrible as Troy 
But Germany is not alone, and cannot be alone. For 
weal or woe, she is a part of a close-knit modern world 
in which "whether one member suffer, all the members 
suffer with it." What is her present calamity, for ex- 
ample, but the harvest of the dragon's teeth sown in her 
soil by the pitiless victors of Versailles? And what may 
be her final disaster but a world disaster in which she 
drags down mankind in ruin with herself? 

Since the Great War, Fascism has been darkening up- 
on the West like a day of doom. Democracy has steadily 
retreated before the onsweeping hosts of tyranny and 
terror. Nation after nation has been engulfed by this 
advancing flood of fierce fanaticism. In Germany the 
crowning culture of our age has succumbed; and from 
Germany now spreads a pestilence to infect the world. 
This is a fight against the modern Black Death. Liber- 
alism, democracy, civilization hang helpless in the bal- 
ance. Helpless unless, before it is too late, there rallies 
to the defense of humanity's dearest treasures the awak- 
ened conscience and courage of mankind ! A war, not of 
the flesh but of the spirit, is now our lot reason against 
barbarism, that mankind may at last survive the hour 
of its most dreadful trial. 

The Jews of Germany 
Are Doomed 


VISIT to Nazi Germany inevitably modifies one's 
views. Sometimes for the better, as in the case of the 
problem of war and peace in Europe ! After a month of 
careful observation and study in Germany, I am per- 
suaded that the "next war" is not coming this year, nor 
next year, nor yet the year after. But one's views may be 
modified by a visit to Germany for the worse! The case 
of the Jews is here the perfect illustration. I thought be- 
fore I went to Hitler's land that I knew the worst about 
the state of Israel in that country. But I did not ! One 
cannot know the worst, nor even imagine it, until one 
has entered Jewish homes in Germany, and behind closed 
doors and curtained windows, talked with the people in 
these homes, and thus in a way touched their very lives. 
The disciple, Thomas, understood only when he had laid 
his hand on the bleeding wounds of Christ. So must those 
who would comprehend today the full measure of the 
tragedy of German Jews. 

My thoughts are still confused, even as they are har- 
rowed and tortured, by what I saw and heard in Germany 
this summer. If I can put these thoughts into any ordered 
form, sum them up in any intelligible way, it would be in 
the three following propositions, which I merely state 


without reference to the abundant and indubitable evi- 
dence which may be cited in their support : 

1. First, the plight of the Jews in Germany is today 
utterly miserable, and is destined to get steadily worse 
until the end in due course has come either in exile 
abroad or the most degraded ghetto existence at home. 
At the moment the situation may seem to be not so bad. 
There are no pogroms, and few open horrors. Many Jews, 
perhaps most, seem to be living normal lives. But what 
is happening is none the less terrible in the long run, for 
the German Jews, if not being tortured and slaughtered 
by wholesale, are instead being ground to pieces by a 
process of outlawry and repression infinitely less dra- 
matic and exciting but in the end as surely fatal as the 
sword. When corn is cast into the mill, there are myriads 
of kernels which in the beginning remain untouched and 
thus apparently undamaged by the turning stones. One 
by one, however, these kernels are caught and crushed, 
and at last the shining particles have all of them been 
ground to dust. This is what is going on in Germany 
quietly, undramatically, inconspicuously, but none the 
less surely. It is because the Jews, even those least in- 
jured today, see the inexorable end, that they are so in- 
expressibly sad. 

Thus, there are Jews now living on pensions paid them 
by the government but when they pass, these pensions 
will not go to other Jews. There are Jews still in the 
civil service of the Nazi government but when they 


retire or die, their positions will be filled by Gentiles. 
There are Jewish veterans of the Great War who are 
receiving privileges, even honors but in another gen- 
eration there will be no veterans, since Jews will not be 
taken into the new conscript army. There are Jewish 
merchants doing business but they cannot advertise, 
are often boycotted, and cannot pass on their interests 
to their sons. There are Jewish teachers in the schools 
but they are pariahs who endure ignominy and shame 
for the sake of a living, and they will have no successors. 
There are Jewish lawyers still practising in the courts 
but only so long as there are Jewish clients able or will- 
ing to employ them. Forty per cent of the physicians 
practicing in Berlin are still Jews "but we will see 
about that," said an official of the Nazi government to 
me in a voice as assured and unconcerned as though he 
were talking about the removal of rubbish from the 
streets. The Jews, in other words, are allowed to live, 
but under conditions increasingly difficult without and 
intolerable within, and with the end of it all definitely 
in sight. The present generation is allowed to exist under 
certain specified conditions, just as a criminal con- 
demned to execution is allowed to exist for weeks, months, 
perhaps years, in the death house. But there always is 
the day of doom, and it approaches. 

It is this fact which makes the supreme tragedy of the 
German Jews today a tragedy of their children. "0, we 
can get along one way or other," said a beautiful young 


Jewish woman to me, referring to her father, her hus- 
band, and herself. "But it's my boys ! We've got to get 
out for their sake." It was only a few moments before 
that she had shown me these boys as they went romping 
upstairs to bed one a lad of twelve, dark, deep-eyed, 
handsome, brilliant in intellect and spirit, the other a 
youngster of four, with a great shock of curly blonde 
hair, and all bubbling with affection and profound emo- 
tional excitement. These boys had been born in a country 
which had repudiated them and closed every door against 
them. They had no country now, and, if they were to live 
at all, must wander abroad in search of some place which 
would receive them. This mother would bear no more 
children, and for these already born must abandon 
everything, and, like Hagar, wander away into the wil- 

It is not until one understands the plight of the chil- 
dren that one really sees the doom of Israel in Germany. 
For these children there is no mercy. Schools are open 
to them still, but not now for long. The universities are 
closed to them, or else open on a quota basis which is 
equivalent to exclusion. Neither boys nor girls are al- 
lowed to learn trades, or prepare for the professions. 
Business may be open to them for a while, but only in 
the lower ranks, and in the end is destined to be denied. 
Social clubs, athletic and sport organizations, literary 
and cultural circles, are already forbidden them. The 
arts music, sculpture, the opera, the drama are theirs 


no more. Worst of all are the humiliations, insults, dis- 
criminations and prejudices which create an atmosphere 
certain to develop in any sensitive child, or even adult, 
an inferiority complex destructive of every higher and 
nobler attribute of the soul. These children, when they 
come to manhood and womanhood may build their ghet- 
to, or live among their fellows as helots, but otherwise 
they must disappear. What wonder that every self-re- 
specting Jewish parent in Germany is struggling des- 
perately to get away, that their children may not perish ! 

One may see the full horror of the situation in the 
simple but pregnant fact that the German Jews are no 
longer citizens of Germany. They have been wantonly 
robbed of their legal and social status in the state. They 
are aliens, "auslanders," in a country in which they have 
lived for a thousand years. Nay, they are worse than 
"auslanders" for the alien in any land carries the pass- 
port of his native country, and thus the protection of 
all the government and law of that country. But the 
German Jew is now literally "a man without a country." 
He has neither his own nor any other nation to guarantee 
his person and property, or to plead his case. The Jew 
in Germany may be, as he actually has been, the victim 
of any and all injustice. He may be abused, outraged, in- 
sulted, his person injured, his property expropriated, his 
women violated, his children handicapped and he has 
no redress before the law. It is this which makes his posi- 
tion today so intolerable, and in the end so fatal. Daily 


he lives in the expectation or fear that any right which 
he still enjoys, any privilege in which he is still in- 
dulged, may be snatched away from him without warn- 
ing. He lives, in other words, on sufferance. Any sudden 
edict of any petty official anywhere may ruin him ut- 
terly. There hangs the Damoclean sword and its fall 
is certain. 

2. This brings me to my second proposition that the 
plight of the German Jew is not only utterly miserable 
but absolutely permanent. There is no slightest chance 
of reprieve, relief, redemption. The Hitler policy is 
fixed, and will therefore no more change than the inex- 
orable pattern of the stars. On this point I consulted all 
sorts and conditions of men Nazis and anti-Nazis, gov- 
ernment officials and private citizens, German ministers 
and American journalists, Jews and Gentiles, Christians 
and pagans and there was no dissenting voice among 
them. All agreed that Hitler's policy toward the Jews 
was immutable, except as from time to time it might be 
made more rigorous and cruel. Only the fall of the 
Hitler government conceivably could bring a change, and 
that was as unlikely as the fall of Mussolini or Stalin. 

The explanation, or rather proof, of this assertion is 
obvious. The attack on the Jews in Germany is no mere 
Ku Klux excursion of a gang of heedless hoodlums. It is 
not simply a tactical manouvre, or item of propaganda 
policy, in a campaign for the control and direction of a 


mob mind. In essence it is the one concrete expression of 
a philosophy which lies at the very heart of whatever 
thought is contained within the Nazi movement. This 
movement is fundamentally the crystallization or or- 
ganization of a racial dogma. There is a superior race 
to whom the earth properly belongs ! This superior race 
is that of the Nordics the Germanic tribes who grew in 
the forests of Germania in the ancient day and now have 
grown to occupy the whole range of central Europe from 
Scandinavia to the Ukraine! These tribes stand in dan- 
ger of being crushed by enemies east (Slavs) and west 
(Latins), and of being corrupted and pursued by the 
bad blood of enemies within (Jews) ! The fight for racial 
survival, for the fulfilment of divine destiny, must be 
joined on every front, but first of all at home! The 
Jew, therefore, must be destroyed, as the first condition 
of Nordic survival ! The land, as a primary duty to> its 
own true children, must be purged of its pollution ! 

This is the philosophy of Nazism if it may be called 
a philosophy! If the Jew were to be spared, the whole 
structure of National Socialism would crumble. The very 
soul of the cause would die. So there may be changes of 
policy elsewhere, but not here. Steadily the grinding will 
go on. Inexorably, year after year, the wheels will turn. 
At first the mad fanaticism of a party, this hatred of the 
Jew has now become the program of a government and, 
worst of all, the passion of a people. The mind and will 


of Germany, on this one point at least, is fixed and the 
Jew is doomed. 

3. I have just spoken of hostility to the Jew in Ger- 
many as "the passion of a people." This brings me to my 
third point namely, the anti-Semitism now ripe within 
the Reich. What has been done to the Jews may have 
been done by the Nazis, but this has now been accepted 
and will in the future be done by the people as a whole. 
The Germans, in other words, whether Nazis or not, are 
anti-Semites. The virus has worked. 

How much anti-Semitism there was in the old Ger- 
many I do not know. I have reason to believe that there 
was considerable, but certainly it was not important as 
a matter of public thought and policy. The Kaiser had 
no anti-Semitic feelings ; on the contrary, he numbered 
among his friends and counsellors distinguished Jews, 
of whom Albert Ballin, perhaps, was the most famous. 
Jews occupied trusted positions in the world of business 
and politics in Wilhelm's empire, and easily lead the 
thought of the country. Walter Rathenau is a noble ex- 
ample of this fact. But now the people have turned, and 
laid Israel beneath the lash of prejudice and hate. It 
was horrifying to me to discover how universal had be- 
come the infection of anti-Semitism in Germany, and how 
deeply it had penetrated the soul of the nation. Persons 
who themselves least suspected it, and who would have 
hotly disavowed it, revealed their anti-Semitic senti- 


ments in a hundred unconscious and yet convincing ways. 
Not only were men and women long trained in liberal 
culture and enlightenment accepting the Hitler cam- 
paign against the Jew as an instrument of national pol- 
icy, but they were justifying it by arguments which rep- 
resented a conversion of mind which had now become a 
conviction. Worst of all is the rearing of a whole genera- 
tion of youth in deliberate fear and detestation of the 
Jew. To see a group of guileless boys and girls reading 
Streicher's filthy anti-Semitic sheet "Der Stuermer," as 
posted up on walls or behind shop windows on the public 
street, or to watch these young people wildly demonstrat- 
ing against a movie theatre showing a Russian picture 
containing a Jewish actor in the cast, is to look upon the 
ghastly spectacle of a foul growth within the human 
soul, destined in due course, like poisonous weeds, to 
choke and destroy all things of beauty in the heart of 

Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany is a political policy, 
but it is also a popular mania. Like any frenzy, it is 
ferocious and fattens upon what it feeds. When Hitler 
inaugurated his campaign against the Jews, he released a 
gas attack which has poisoned and therewith corrupted 
an entire nation. As the lung tissues disintegrate under 
the gaseous fumes of bombs and hand-grenades at the 
battlefront, so the soul tissues of the German people 
have disintegrated under the propaganda influences of 
speeches, books, pictures, lies in every form innumerable. 


With no masks of any kind, intellectual or otherwise, to 
protect them, the people have succumbed. In the anti- 
Semitism of modern Germany, in other words, Hitler has 
already won his fight against his hated enemy ! Though 
he and his government were to fall tomorrow, the Jew 
could gain but little, for the infection would remain, and 
the work of death go on. 

There is only one thing that can be done about the 
Jews in Germany, and that is to get tliem out. They must 
be rescued, as the residents of a burning house, trapped 
by devouring flames, are rescued by firemen. The Jews 
cannot get out themselves, just as the householder, in 
anguish and terror on the upper stories of his home, can- 
not escape by his own efforts. With devilish ingenuity, 
the Hitlerites have decreed that money cannot be taken 
out of Germany beyond a nominal limit of ten marks, nor 
property liquidated and transferred. The new exodus of 
an entire people must be undertaken by their fellow- 
tribemen without, and by Gentiles who understand and 
pity and would help. This task I believe to be as impera- 
tive as the feeding of famine sufferers in China, or the 
relief of earthquake victims in Japan or India. Millions 
should be raised for the job, and an organization com- 
parable to the Red Cross placed in charge. Boycotts are 
important, but none the less insignificant as compared 
with this immediate and wholesale work of rescue. 


The Crucifixion: 
History or Theology? 


OME time ago I wrote an article on the effect of early 
childhood influence on inner states of mind. I referred 
specifically to prejudices, and used my own early ex- 
perience with Jews and Catholics as an illustration of my 
thesis. I pointed out that, as a child, I was reared in 
eastern Massachusetts in a family saturated with aboli- 
tion sentiment, was taught that the anti-slavery fight 
constituted the heroic period of American history, and 
through all my early years saw Negro men and women 
received in sympathy and honor into the family house- 
hold. I simply never encountered any distinction between 
blacks and whites, and therefore to this day have an 
attitude of friendship toward the Negroes which is as 
natural as breathing. On the other hand, my childhood 
in eastern Massachusetts plunged me into the fierce at- 
mosphere of the famous A.P.A, controversy of forty- 
odd years ago. Catholics in my early days were regarded 
as foul conspirators against our American democracy. 
The neighborhood in which I flourished as a boy was all 
aflame with the idea that Catholic servant girls were 
poisoning food and that Catholic churches planted a 
musket in the cellar for every man-child born into the 
parish. These early extravagances and fanaticisms made 


an indelible impression upon my mind. If I am today as 
just to Catholics as to other men, it is because of con- 
victions of the reason and efforts of the will and not 
because of congenitally automatic reactions. 

Referring to this article, a friend recently questioned 
me about my early experience with Jews. "In the case 
of the Negroes and the Catholics," said he, "the genetics 
of prejudice and non-prejudice are absolutely convinc- 
ing ; but I am puzzled in applying your finding to the 
Jewish situation. What effect did the inculcation of the 
crucifixion story have upon your emotions toward Jews? 
If this gave you an anti- Jewish basis, how did you rid 
yourself of it? If the crucifixion story did not produce 
a negative reflex, how would you account for its failure 
to do so?" This is an interesting inquiry, which may well 
be given answer in this place. What is the story of my 
experience in this regard? 

As I try to carry my mind back into my early years, 
I find no memory at all of any conscious reaction upon 
the story of Jesus' crucifixion. I cannot see it in my rec- 
ollection as in any way isolated from other more or less 
commonplace impressions. It was simply a piece of his- 
torical information which came to me naturally in the 
course of my acquisition of knowledge, and made no 
especial imprint upon my mind. Certainly my acquaint- 
anceship with the story created no unfavorable reaction 
of any sort. I cannot seem to discover that it has ever 
had any place, either one way or another, in my attitude 


toward Jews. If it had had any such place, the conse- 
quences would certainly have been favorable, for I 
learned early that Jesus, a Jew, was one of those sublime- 
ly heroic men who was not afraid to die a terrible death 
for his faith. But all this, as I examine my memory, is a 
blank. What is the explanation? 

There is, or at least may be, a two-fold explanation. 
In the first place, on the negative side, the crucifixion 
story never came to me with any of the theological en- 
tanglements which are involved in the traditional con- 
tent of Christian doctrine. I never was taught that Jesus 
was God, or the son of God, or in any way a deity. I 
never believed that the Nazarene was the central figure 
of a cosmic drama, the outcome of which had a conse- 
quence for eternal good or ill to all mankind. There was 
never imposed upon me, in other words, any undue 
emphasis upon the significance of what happened upon 
Calvary. Certainly I never gathered any intimation that 
the Jews, or the Romans, or anybody else, were "God- 
killers." It is possible for me to imagine that, if I ac- 
cepted the creeds of Christendom, the death of Jesus on 
the cross would hold a place of central significance in 
my mind, and that the exact circumstances of his exe- 
cution might therefore be so important to me as to stir 
enormous emotions of prejudice against those respon- 
sible for the Savior's suffering and dissolution. But all 
this is matter outside my own experience, which came to 
me very late as pure speculation when as a student I be- 


gan to study the trivial and not infrequently absurd 
ramifications of Christian theology. Born and brought 
up in the Unitarian church, and in a radical wing of 
that church, I was happily kept immune from all the 
consequences, anti-Semitism among the rest, which have 
followed in the wake of Christian dogmatism and bigotry. 

This is the negative side of my experience. There is 
also the positive side. The crucifixion of Jesus has al- 
ways appeared to me, so far as I can recollect, as a 
perfectly natural human event, easily understandable 
as the result of psychological, political, and social forces 
characteristic of all peoples in all ages. I never looked 
upon the final tragedy of the drama of Jesus' life, in 
other words, as anything unique. So far as I can recall, 
my mind classified it from the beginning with that long 
series of terrible events which constitutes that dark yet 
heroic story of martyrdom. Jesus died as Socrates died, 
as Joan of Arc died, as Savonarola died, as Giordano 
Bruno died, as Lattimer and Ridley died, as John Brown 
died. If certain individual Jews and Romans had a hand 
in the killing of Jesus, it was only as certain individual 
Athenians had a hand in the killing of Socrates, certain 
Frenchmen and Englishmen in the killing of the Maid of 
Orleans, certain Americans in the killing of John Brown. 

To hold any grudge, or to cherish any prejudice and 
hate, against Jews as a group, because Jesus was slain 
in Jerusalem would be as foolish, as incredible, as to 
despise and persecute Greeks today because Socrates 


was made to drink the hemlock in Athens, or modern 
Englishmen and Frenchmen because Joan was burned 
at Rouen, or to assail my own countrymen because the 
fathers of men now living hanged John Brown at 
Charlestown. Put the worst possible construction upon 
the connection of Jews with Jesus' death! Hold them 
to be exclusively and cruelly responsible for this mon- 
strous crime! They would still be guilty of nothing 
more or worse than other men have been guilty of under 
the same circumstances against their own greatest pro- 
phets and heroes. Once get the historical point of view 
upon Jesus' death, in other words, and we discover that 
the same forces were at work on Calvary's hill as on all 
the gibbets and pyres of the world. 

It is because the crucifixion has never been regarded in 
this way by the great masses of Christians, but on the 
contrary has been lifted up, as Jesus was lifted up on the 
cross, above and therefore out of the universal currents 
of human passion, that Jews, incidentally in plain viola- 
tion of the exact historic facts involved, have been held 
as murderers whose guilt, transmitted to all future gen- 
erations, could never be forgotten or forgiven. There are 
few superstitions in history more monstrous than this, 
and none which has produced a more ghastly harvest of 
agony and blood. Its cure, or prevention, as in my own 
experience, is simply right knowledge. I am not different 
from other men. If I was saved from the anti-Semitic 

poison of the crucifixion tale, it is only because I was 
taught history and not mythology or theology. 

This statement opens up the larger question as to 
whether Christianity, or any other so-called inspired 
religion, is willing to have it followers taught real as 
contrasted with fake history. To what extent is tradi- 
tional religion consistent with any right reading of 
man's experience upon this earth? I have long contended 
that knowledge, carried through relentlessly to its ulti- 
mate conclusions, must involve the dissolution and de- 
struction of all orthodox religious faith. Here is one 
specific illustration of my thesis! Incidentally, why 
should we fear the passing of orthodoxy when it means 
the coming of truth, which in its heart contains the seed 
of that nobler religion of the universal spirit which 
must some day unite all men in the blessed bonds of 


One Common Path to God 


T SEEMS curious, after all these centuries of alienation 
and isolation, of persecution on the one side and suff ering 
on the other, that Jews and Christians should be grow- 
ing together into an identity of interest. Yet such seems 
to be the case in the ironic as well as terrific developments 
of this chaotic modern world. Jews and Christians, who 
have for generations been poles apart, are now being 
drawn into a common experience as they are challenged 
to endure woes and injustices together. 

Conspicuous at this moment is the proposed partition 
of Palestine. The Jews, with their previous Zionist cause 
at stake, have been quick to resent and denounce this 
monstrous program for the division of Palestine, like 
Caesar's Gaul, into three parts. The Christians, with no 
such immediate interest in the Holy Land, have been slow 
to recognize what is involved in this new policy of British 
imperialism, but little by little they are beginning to 
wake up to the fact that the sacred soil of their spiritual 
homeland is to be butchered to make a British holiday. 
For Palestine belongs to Christians as well as Jews. Its 
villages and cities are associated with Jesus as well as 
David, and its highways marked with the feet of the 
disciples and the apostles as well as of the prophets and 
the kings. 


I remember, when I visited Palestine in 1929, how I 
was impressed by this dual interest. The land was ob- 
viously, in its deepest historical significance, the land of 
Israel. Upon the map were stamped indelibly the ancient 
Jewish names. But out of this land had emerged Chris- 
tianity, which had taken over for its own, so to speak, 
certain spots which were forever Christ's. If Hebron and 
Jericho and Tekoah and Safed and Carmel and Meggido 
and the well of Gideon and Mt. Hermon to say noth- 
ing for the moment of the areas reclaimed by the pioneers 
of Zion belonged to the Jews, so Nazareth and Bethle- 
hem and Capernaum and Bethel and the Sea of Galilee 
and the wilderness of Jordan belonged to the Christians. 
And in Jerusalem there seemed to be a shrine shared, 
with whatever contention, by the two religions on the 
one hand, for example, the Wailing Wall, and on the 
other hand, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Here is 
a common heritage with the fate of which Jews and 
Christians should be equally concerned. 

And now comes Britain, and proposes to carve up the 
land ! What have the Christians to say to this idea ? One 
would think that they would cry out in even more clam- 
orous alarm and anger than the Jews themselves, for the 
latter do, after all, get a portion of Palestine for their 
own, to deal with as they will. It is true that they lose 
Jerusalem a fact which one would think would make 
their right hands forget their cunning, and their tongues 
cleave to the roof of their mouths ! But the bribe of in- 


dependent nationality is tempting, and there are those 
in Israel who are ready to take it. At the same time has 
the Empire shrewdly schemed for Christian support by 
including the church's holy sites in the portion of Pales- 
tine reserved for British rule? But is it only a spot here 
and a spot there that Christians reverence in Palestine? 
Is it not the whole land itself which is the altar of their 
faith? And can they view with equanimity a partition of 
this land only less abominable than the iniquitous par- 
tition of Poland in the eighteenth century? This Pales- 
tinian partition can no more endure than the Polish par- 
tition. As Poles could not rest until their fatherland had 
been reunited, so Jews and Christians also will not rest 
until their homeland has likewise been reunited. Slowly 
but surely Jews and Christians will find a common cause 
in the plight of Palestine, and together labor and pray 
until the Holy Land is rescued today from Britain as 
yesterday from the Turk. 

In Germany the Jews are undergoing an experience 
which may in the end, if the Nazi regime endures that 
long, culminate in their extinction as a people. Anti- 
Semitic outrages began almost immediately after Hitler 
had accomplished the liquidation of his political oppon- 
ents, and thus had placed himself securely in the seat of 
power. To their shame, be it said, the Christians sup- 
ported the state, or at least did not oppose it, in those 
early days, and chose to ignore or remain indifferent to 


the program directed against their Jewish brethren. It 
was not long, however, before these Christians found 
themselves in difficulties. Now, after nearly five years of 
Hitler's rule, they are in straits so desperate that only 
the sufferings of Israel can be compared with them. 

There are two reasons why the German churches, both 
Catholic and Protestant, have fallen afoul of the new 
regime. In the first place, the Hitlerites have established 
a totalitarian state, which brooks independence as little 
as opposition. Not only political parties and trade 
unions and universities and social and athletic clubs 
must be subdued to this type of state, but also churches ! 
Not the bishops, either Lutheran or Roman Catholic, 
but the officers of government shall determine ecclesias- 
tical policies and define articles of belief 1 Even the train- 
ing of the young shall be taken out of the hands of pas- 
tors and priests, and placed in the hands of politicians ! 
Against such absorption into the alien world of tem- 
poral affairs the churches have rebelled, and to this day 
have conducted a campaign which represents the sole op- 
position which Hitler has encountered since he came to 

The second reason for the trouble between the state 
and church, between the Nazis on the one hand and the 
Christians on the other, lies in the nature of Christianity 
itself. This religion, it is pointed out by the Nazis, is 
alien to the genius of the German people. It is not a 
native growth from out of the heart of German life, but 


an importation from the cults and races of the ancient 
Orient. It does not "belong" to this people now suddenly 
aroused to a living consciousness of their own distinctive 
attributes and needs. But this is not the worst for 
Christianity is not only foreign but Jewish! Its scrip- 
tures were written by Jews ; its early apostles were Jews ; 
its ethics spring from the moral code of Israel ; its Lord 
and Master, despite every effort to prove him an Aryan, 
was in training at least, if not in actual racial origin, a 
Hebrew of the Hebrews. So upon the Christian faith 
there rests the final reproach of Semitism ! And in revolt 
among the Nazis have appeared the German Christian 
movement, which would substitute German for Jewish 
elements in the traditional gospel, and the much more 
radical neo-paganist movement, which would altogether 
purge the Reich of the contamination of this Hebrew 
religion masquerading in the livery of Christendom. 

Thus Christians share with Jews the horrors of Nazi 
persecution. In the case of the Jews, the persecution is 
now characterized by little violence and few immediate 
outrages. It takes the form of slow and unremitting pres- 
sure calculated, like the grinding of a machine, to crush 
the life out of Israel. In the case of the Christians, the 
persecution is sharp and cruel, with dramatic scenes 
and numerous personal encounters. Pastors are snatched 
from their pulpits, and hidden away in concentration 
camps ; churches are closed and barred in the face of 
worshippers ; theological schools are raided, and church 


conferences broken up. But methods of persecution are 
insignificant as compared with ends, which in the case of 
Jews and of Christians today in Germany are to all in- 
tents and purposes the same. Hitler proposes to ex- 
tinguish the Jews, and to subdue and absorb the Chris- 
tians. Which means that both Jews and Christians now 
have a common stake in the liberation of the Reich from 
the grossest tyranny of modern times ! 

Other countries in this unhappy age reveal similar 
phenomena. Russia, for example ! It is wrong to say that 
there has been religious persecution as such in the Soviet 
Republic. Churches and synagogues have always been 
open, and their worship available to the people. Priests 
and rabbis, disfranchised and denied citizenship,* have 
still been permitted to practice their sacred rites and 
serve the spiritual interests of their people. But it is 
true, none the less, that a frankly atheistical govern- 
ment has done everything it could to discourage religion, 
and in its teaching of the young has done its utmost to 
make the faith alike of Israel and Christianity ridicu- 
lous. It has even fostered organized campaigns of athe- 
ism, very similar in character to our evangelical revivals, 
which have had great influence upon the popular mind. 
Religion has not been interfered with in Russia ; there 
has been no direct religious persecution. Yet has there 
been created an environment so unfavorable as to doom 
religion to ultimate extinction. 

^Restored under the new constitution. J.H.H. 


In addition, there has been immediate trouble shared 
alike by Jews and Gentiles ! Thus, when I was in Rus- 
sia, in 1931, 1 met three pitiful Tolstoians who had come 
to Moscow from the arctic wilds of Siberia to plead the 
cause of their exiled brethren. This little group of what 
might be called primitive Christians had stirred the 
wrath of the Kremlin not because they were Christians 
but because they were non-resistants. They were unwill- 
ing to sanction war, would not accept military training, 
and therefore were condemned as counter-revolution- 
aries. So they had been "liquidated" by being taken from 
their farms, and banished with their families, empty- 
handed, to the farthest wastes of the bitter north. These 
men I met had trekked to Moscow not to complain, but 
to beg from the government the tools and seed and live- 
stock without which they could not live. 

Comparable to these Tolstoians in every respect are 
the Zionists of Soviet Russia who likewise feel the heavy 
hand of government. These Jews are not persecuted be- 
cause they are Jews. There is not a vestige of such feel- 
ing in Russia as there is in Germany. On the contrary, 
the Soviets are the only nation in the world in which anti- 
Semitism is named as a crime punishable under the laws 
of the state. But Zionist Jews, because of their devo- 
tion to the great cause of the New Palestine, are charged 
with the crime of having an interest and an allegiance 
outside of Russia itself. Their first loyalty is not to the 
Kremlin but to Mt. Zion, and hence are they citizens 


brought at once under the suspicion of treason, or 
counter-revolution. The lot of Zionists in Russia is mis- 
erable, for the same reason and in the same way that the 
lot of Christian non-resistants is similarly miserable. 

And now within recent weeks have come the reports 
that the Stalin "purge" has reached Biro-Bidjan, and 
seized certain of the Jewish leaders of this colony for 
arrest and trial. What does this mean? I do not know! 
But it would seem to indicate that Jews are so truly a 
part of the new society of Russia that they must now 
suffer pari-passu with their Gentile contemporaries, 
Communists as well as Christians. 

As though to match the tragic stories out of Russia 
comes within a few weeks a story of "anti-Semitism," as 
the newspaper despatch describes it, in Mexico. Protests 
are being heard against "another wave of Jewish immi- 
gration." A Congressman charges that many Jews are 
in the country illegally. The press notes that a national 
meeting of 40,000 small merchants has been called to 
"eliminate the disloyal competition of certain elements" 
as always, Jews ! While the government is understood 
not to favor this anti-Semitic agitation, it is none the 
less pointed out that feeling against Jews is rapidly in- 
creasing in Mexico, and "there has never been so wide- 
spread a campaign of this kind before." Meanwhile, three 
Jews have recently been expelled as "undesirables." All 
of which follows hard upon the bitter persecutions of 


Protestants and Catholics ! The Jews in Mexico seem 
now fated to share the miseries of Christians. 

What these facts would seem to indicate is a chang- 
ing relationship between Jews and Christians in this 
fateful modern age. Hitherto, in the sixteen hundred 
odd years since the triumph of the Cross in the Rome of 
Constantine, the Christians have dominated our western 
world as the majority group of a society in which have 
appeared various minority groups among others, the 
Jews. Quite in accordance with the spirit of the medieval 
and early modern times, these minority groups have had 
to endure the overlordship and frequently the outright 
persecution of the majority group. Among the sufferers 
have been Christians themselves the heretics who have 
been unable to conform to the orthodoxy of Rome. But 
first among them were always the Jews, who were re- 
garded as heretics from the hour they refused to accept 
Jesus as the Christ of God. It was little comfort to the 
Jews, in their incredible tortures, to recall that they 
were enduring pangs no more terrible than those visited 
upon devout followers of the Nazarene who chanced to 
practice a gospel not recognized by the powers-that-be. 
But history must record that, in essence, it was the same 
extraordinary phenomenon of a majority group perse- 
cuting those who would not or could not conform. 

Now, in our chaotic day, has come a change in this 
whole situation. Suddenly, without warning, Christians 


of impeccably orthodox respectability have become mi- 
nority groups in a new society which they do not recog- 
nize. In Germany both Lutherans and Catholics, in Rus- 
sia and apparently in Mexico all Christians of every 
type, in Palestine the churches subservient to the Em- 
pire, are now cast down from the seat of majority con- 
trol, and find themselves, as in the Rome before Constan- 
tine, striving to live under the alien rule of Nazis, Bol- 
sheviks, imperialists, who know not Christ. For the first 
time in all these centuries since their ascendancy in the 
western world, these Christians are learning what it is 
to be outlaws, heretics, enemies, who must meet persecu- 
tion as did their apostolic forbears, and struggle under 
such persecution to survive. The Christians, in other 
words, are again on the defensive. They are become 
minorities exactly like the Jews who, through all these 
same centuries, have eaten the bread and drunk the 
waters of affliction as administered by these same Chris- 
tians. Which means that Jews and Christians, in the 
whirligig of time, have become one! Whether they will 
or no, they together endure humiliation and outrage at 
the hands of those who rule them as alien minorities in 
a society which has in many places moved as definitely 
out of the Christian civilization as this Christian civili- 
zation in the fourth century moved out of the Roman 
before it. 

It is this experience, bitterly ironical on both sides, 
which must now teach Jews and Christians that they 


have a common stake in a future into which they hope 
to survive, and that they must therefore live a common 
life in a present in which they are doomed to suffer. Such 
hope for the future and such suffering in the present, the 
same for one as for the other, should unite them in one 
body of expectation and affiliation. For how can there 
be alienation any longer between groups alike reduced 
to a degradation of misery in which both must enjoy a 
mutual sympathy if they are to live at all? Must there 
not, for very truth's sake, be common cause between 
these groups as against a new barbarism of ignorance, 
superstition and violence which threaten to engulf the 
world's most precious heritage of spirituality? Between 
two such minorities, despised and rejected of the ruling 
powers of the world, prejudice must perish and sus- 
picions die. Ghettoes must merge into catacombs, and 
catacombs into ghettoes, as the hunted and hated seek 
a refuge where together they may keep alive in darkness 
the flickering light of faith. And as Christians and Jews 
thus suffer the same fate, and watch and wait for the 
same release, will they not in the end discover their es- 
sential spiritual identity? Perhaps the Nazis are right 
in this one thing at least that true Christianity is in 
essence Judaism, and that prophets and apostles have 
walked one common path to God? 

Presented to the Library by 
Religious Exhibit 

A* L*A 
- Baympnd "? -Morris